Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Low Incidence Disabilities…
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Low Incidence Disabilities
Visual impairment, including blindness
Optical character recognition software (OCR)
: Software that allows images or text on paper to be converted digitally then read using text-to-speech.
Screen reading software
: Screen reading software (e.g. JAWS) uses a speech synthesiser to convert text-to-speech. Screen readers also provide keyboard commands to assist navigation.
Screen magnification software:
This can enlarge content from 1.25 times up to 20 times. It can increase the size, shape and colour of the cursor pointer. Dolphin's supernova is an example.
On screen keyboards:
These allow users to enter text and have access to all keyboard functions using a joystick, mouse or speech.
Text to speech software and conversion:
This software can convert text from eBooks or presentations to consume immediately OR can be saved for later (e.g. an mp3 file).
Phones and laptops:
Android phones come with built in screen reading software. More and more operating systems come with accessibility software pre-installed. Mac OS includes voice over, zoom, display, dictation and text-to-speech for visually impaired users.
Phone applications for the visually impaired is keeping pace with the general pace of technological process.
See the video for a new APP that identifies objects within a phones camera screen.
A refreshable display that shows a braille representation of text from a screen. These usually have associated keys and usually allow users to input text using Braille.
Handheld telescopes and magnifying glasses:
These allow people with low vision to magnify content either up close or in the distance.
These use handheld or mounted cameras to capture and image and then project an enlarged version of it onto a video monitor, screen or computer monitor. Some cameras also include zoom lenses and autofocus.
Low tech solutions can be anything from moving a monitor to reduce glare, changing the size of monitors/screens to adding in slant boards or different mounting options.
Access to technology. Less developed countries or less affluent areas may not have assistive technology for students.
Cost to the individual. Some technology like Braille displays are prohibitively expensive. Mostly it's larger, wealthier institutions who can afford to buy them even in developed countries.
Consider how a visually impaired student would feel trying to navigate in your classroom.
Clear and tidy space to allow for easy movement.
Resources kept in the same place and put back there after use. Labels in easy to read, large fonts. Braille if necessary.
Well lit classroom.
Make sure students are sat near a power supply if using electronic assistive technology.
Consider the students position in relation to you and your board/materials.
Find or create space for assistive technology in the classroom.
Doors kept open or closed, not partially open.
Make students aware of emergency procedures for any building they're using.
Identify and publish core reading materials well in advance of the semester starting.
Arrangements need to be made for visually impaired students to have access to it with large print, braille or audio.
Indicate compulsory texts and chapters.
This allows students to prioritise. Students, the school or library may also be able to obtain electronic copies.
Preparation of alternative or accessible text.
Preparing braille versions, audio or large text books all takes time if one isn't available yet.
. Make sure arrangements have been made well ahead of the start of the semester for any equipment needed.
Inform students in advance if using videos, slides or other visuals. This gives them the option of viewing it in advance of the class. They can then sit very close to the screen, pause and re-watch at will and/or have someone help explain the video.
Make sure any slides (in powerpoint etc) have good contrast between text and background, use large fonts, are very clear with simple designs. Give them in advance if necessary.
Ask students. Different students will have different requirements. Teachers can ask if there are any colour combinations, text or picture sizes that work best for your student(s).
Verbally describe what you're looking at.
Delivery of lessons
Face the class
Ask students if the pace, voice and clarity of speech are okay.
Speakers identify themselves by name.
Verbally announce entering or leaving a room
Stand where there is minimal glare
Orally convey anything you're writing or showing on boards, charts or other visuals.
Ask the visually impaired student where is best for them to sit.
Usually near the front or to one side of any projector or TV.
Arrange seating before hand or clearly know where visually impaired students will sit. Finding a seat in a busy classroom can be difficult.
Consider recording any lecture or presentation on video/audio for the student to re-watch/listen when needed.
If in a group, ensure one person is speaking at one time so the conversation can be more easily followed. Speakers should always identify themselves verbally before speaking.
Provide any handouts in advance and in priority order. As much as possible use an electronic format to make it more accessible to adapt information using hardware and software. Use colour and imagery if the student doesn't intend to braille the materials.
. Allow students extra time to read through slides and respond. Providing any materials in advance will help prevent exclusion during presentations and lectures.
Learning Support Team
. Teachers should work with their schools learning support team to continuously evaluate and assess students. Students with visual impairments especially, will have perhaps also gone through a process similar to
. Especially if their impairment has been a gradual development or they are unaware of it.
Developmental delay is the term used when a young child is slower to develop physical, emotional, social and communication skills than is expected in children of that age.
Communication Development (speech and language)
Use large clear pictures to reinforce what you are saying
Speak slowly and deliberately.
Paraphrase back what the student has said
Social and Emotional Development
Provide opportunities for students to play in proximity to one another.
Provide opportunities for students to interact directly with each other.
Provide play activities that don’t require sharing such as art projects, making music (students have own instrument), and sand or water play.
Adaptive Behavior (everyday skills for functioning)
Break down each skill into steps.
Use visual schedules with pictures / icons to demonstrate each step.
Minimize distractions and the possibility for over-stimulation.
Plan physical activities for times when the student has the most energy.
Provide simple, fun obstacle courses that the student is capable of completing.
Provide daily opportunities and activities for children to use handheld tools and objects.
Cognitive Development (intellectual abilities)
Use the student’s preferences and interests to build lessons (get input from parents).
Allow student time to complete tasks and practice skills at own pace.
Acknowledge level of achievement by being specific.
:overhead projectors, tape recorders, voice output communication aids
: adaptive hardware for keyboards, computers, proofreading software, word processors, speech recognition and synthesis software, spellcheckers, and screen reading software
: albums, binders, dry erase boards, folders, picture cards, activity schedules, and graphic organizers
Assistive Technology for Developmental Delays Part [1.]
Assistive Technology for Developmental Delays Part [2.]
Hearing Impairment (hearing loss ) :
Make sure that the students are seated close enough to the front of the class
Obtain student’s attention prior to speaking
Reduce background noise
Reduce visual distractions
speak clearly and slowly
Enhance speech reading conditions (avoid hands in front of face, mustaches well-trimmed, no gum chewing)
Allow extra time for processing information
Use hand signals or devise a signaling system to denote transitions
Repeat or rephrase information when necessary
Use of visual supplements (projected materials, whiteboard, charts, vocabulary lists, lecture outlines)
Captioning or scripts for announcements, television, videos, or movies
Use language cards that contain vocabulary and illustrations of concepts and definitions
Check for understanding of information
break from listening
Extra time to complete assignments
Writing tests/exams in a quiet room.
Provision of more time for the writing of exams.
Requesting a live voice (reader) instead of a digitally or computer generated voice or CD-rom/MP3 format.
Physical Environment Accommodations:
Room design modifications
Flashing fire alarm
Specialized lighting ,so the student can see the teacher face clearly
uses invisible light beams to carry sound from the source to a personal receiver.
sound amplification system
a great tool to help student to focus
which is manufactured by comfort audio is designed to amplify sounds closer to the listener,whilr reducing background sounds
it a device that has two component the transmitter and the receiver
can use a microphone and pass it from student to student so the student with hearing impairment can hear the other students discussion
allows interactive communication without using speech .
(text messages, facetime, closed caption, mono audio0
apps available on the App store
My smart hands
use sound, light, vibrations, or a combination of these techniques to let someone know when a particular event is occurring. *
connect to a doorbell, telephone, or alarm that emits a loud sound or blinking light to let someone with hearing loss know that an event is taking place.
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices
These devices can range from a simple picture board to a computer program that synthesizes speech from text.
devices (ALDs) help amplify the sounds the students want to hear
works the sound is conveyed though radio waves to a personal receiver.
audio or hearing loop
is a wire that circles a room and is connected to the sound system.
Telephones & Ringers
Some phones have built-in volume and frequency adjustments which can increase amplification and clarity of sound.
Wireless technology in personal listening systems provides direct and amplified sound with adjustable volume and little background noise.
Have adaptive physical education
make classroom layout accessible
rearrange furniture for clear paths
have more leg space under desks
have round or soft edges on desks
make sure students are able to see visuals from the desks or workspace
make all materials in the classroom accessible or modify them if possible (
adapt written lessons to oral or technology based
extend time limits for assignments
extend wait time for answering questions
include instruction time for gross and fine motor skills
communicate with therapists, P.E. teachers, and parents to coordinate and connect classroom work to other activities
speech recognition software
screen reading software
augmentitive and alternative communicative devices (such as communication boards)
academic software packages for students with disabilities
allow recording of lessons for later playback
note taking assistance
Other Health impairments
Read a student's account of their life of
choosing between education or health.
Allow for distractions such as frequent toilet breaks, water bottles in class. Conditions such as SCD can not get dehydrated or concentrate urine in the same way.
Keep a cool temperature, be aware of students that may be affected by the temperature.
Have a diagnosis card with students at all times for specialists teachers, SUBs and other times you are not presen. This will help if there is an emergency but also explain some things that perhaps is embarrassing for the child to talk about.
Teachers need to understand the condition a student has to know what First Aid may be needed, training offered by the school
Work with Student Counselors to help child with emotional issues such as anger, bullying, depression or isolation. If needed , create a
Goals and expectations may need to be altered but not necessarily lowered. They should be related to the curriculum standards but perhaps use different methods of recording or presenting.
Allow for tiredness, frequent break or a pass to the nurse's office to lie down and rest.
Assign a buddy (if wanted) to help in emergencies (a familiar face) to aid and support is the child is scared and/ or in pain.
Know where any medication is for emergencies or have a direct way to contact the school nurse if policies restrict you from administering medication.
Frequent / Prolonged Absences
Group chat account (Skype for example) so that a student may be present in the classroom if they feel up to it but not able to be physically present
Access to learning website for use during long periods of absences
School approved sites or teacher recommended
Sending home assignments using email
Regular updates and contact with tutor regarding assignments/ work
Help with conditions causing/ leading to other conditions that limit movement/ give student a lack of energy...
Erase boards with larger markers
Voice recording devices for those with no movement ability
Ipad/ tablet for use of touch screen/ apps such as SOUNDNOTE .
Audio texts made available of texts for children who are low in energy, listening may be easier than reading.
- a great tool used to help students with limited movement and speech (conditions like cerebral palsy)
Traumatic Brain Injury
Calendars, planners, schedulers, notebooks to help with organizational skills
Checklists and notes as reminders
Canes, crutches, wheelchairs, specialized desks/tables/chairs
Voice Recorders for classroom notes / smart pens that record audio while writing
Speech to text recognition software for writing
For task scheduling, reminders and step by step instructions
For educational apps for those with learning disabilities
Keep classroom routines consistent
Reduce Distractions to help students focus
Realize that the student may tire quickly. Let the student rest as needed
Give the student more time to practice new skills and finish tasks
Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions
Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts
Probe skill acquisition frequently and provide repeated practice
Show the student how to organize using calendars, schedule planners and checklists
Differentiate lessons for various learning styles
Outside the classroom
Communicate frequently with the student's family about progress in and out of school. Which is an important part of the process of addressing students with special needs. > see
My Plan for Addressing Struggling Students
Do as much research as you can to understand TBI and the students specific needs and abilities.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Autism Spectrum Disorder is a diagnosis that describes serious social, communicative, and behavioral challenges. People with autism process information differently in their brain than typically-developing peers.
Autism affects each person in different ways and can range from very mild to severe. People with autism share some similar symptoms, such as problems with social interaction, difficulties with communication, and repetitive/stereotypical behavior.
North Shore Pediatric Therapy
However, autism can also be viewed as an atypical development path that has the potential of bringing a much greater diversity of perspectives to the world, as discussed by Temple Grandin in her TED talk:
Link to ADHD by
Classroom Accommodation and Inclusion Strategies for ASD
Demonstrate and model expected behaviors.
Provide visual supports as much as possible (e.g. a visual schedule), like this:
Expect to acquire the student's attention and communicate this with gentle reminders, if necessary. Check frequently for understanding.
Use positive reinforcement.
Reduce the number of items a student must complete on an assignment.
Give extra time to complete an assignment to accommodate fine motor deficits.
Locate student's desk as close as possible to the teacher, facing front.
Provide a "quiet zone" for student to retreat to when overstimulated.
Provide sensory materials, like a bean bag, stress ball, or chew straws for alleviating stress.
Provide sensory-blocking materials like earplugs or earphones, to occupy or isolate a certain sense.
Susan Flynn, 2010 (
Always supervise social interactions.
Post visuals with specific social rules. Make sure they are easily visible and understandable by all students.
Help an ASD student rehearse strategies for social interactions by using classmates as peer models (e.g.,
video modeling of a desired social skill) and providing “scripts” of what the student should do in particular social
Have your students write social stories. Social stories are short stories, written from a child’s perspective, that
describe appropriate behavior in particular social situations. See one here: (
Explain any changes in the daily routine and prepare student in advance.
Susan Flynn, 2010 (
Learn and know your students' communication abilities.
If your student is non-verbal, use non-verbal communication paired with verbal to communicate.
(e.g. pick up the science book at the same time you tell students to get out their science book.)
Provide picture symbols for students to use to communicate when they cannot speak.
Use an A-B-C form to help ASK children understand that their behavior has consequences.
Use concrete language with ASK students to eliminate figurative language. Many ASD students
are very literal and usually misunderstand figures of speech.
Susan Flynn, 2010 (
Speech generating devices for non-verbal children.
smartphone with voice recording/podcast capability
laptop computer to use with educational software, internet browsers,
and word processing software.
Apps to help with organization, such as *Visual Schedule Planner,
Functional Planning System*
speech to text software
, which will automatically sound an alarm
when the decibel level gets too high, or
Too Noisy Pro
to indicate to
the individual that they are being too loud.
Apps for sequencing tasks like
Sequencing Tasks: Life Skills
reduce the number of steps to complete a task, or give a visual of
the task steps in sequence.
Virtual environment software to help develop social awareness and
Website listing more useful apps:
Missouri Assistive Technology Advisory Council
Kristie Brown Lofland, 2010,
Indiana Resource Center for Autism
Wainer, Ingersoll, 2010,
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Student is referred to Learning Support Services. To see how this process might play out in my private school in Hong Kong, see my coggle map here:
Multiple disabilities :silhouettes: :silhouettes:
simultaneous] impairments of 2 or more serious disabilities
(cognitive, movement, sensory)
does not include deaf-blindness
The 2 most common are:
intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment
anything with touch screens
using programs such as Visual Assistant which can include pictures, drawings, audio messages.
text to speech,
speech to text software
Augmentative and Alternative Communiction
Sign language. Which is often a problem for people with multiple disabilities
Wheelchairs, crutches, leg braces
Peer teaching, IEP that suit needs, extra time for assignments, lots of visual cues, different way to submit a task like video, audio reports
(life skills) are very important for this group. Self-care and self-advocacy are essential for inclusion into society.
record lessons, Sit close to teachers, audio equipment
visual lessons, make ppts to take home, sit close to board/teacher
Deaf-blindness and Deafness
What is Deaf-Blindness?
Deafblindness is a combination of sight and hearing loss that affects a person’s ability to communicate, to access all kinds of information, and to get around.
Deafblindness is not just a deaf person who cannot see, or a blind person who cannot hear. The two impairments together increase the effects of each.
1 on 1
1) Be Patient
2) Identify yourself/ be clear
3) Ask permission before touching someone.
4) Don't distract help animals.
1) include electronic material on usb or flash drives to take away and revise at home.
2) Identify note takers in lesson
3)Allow maneuverable seating for better audio listening.
4) Allow audio recording in class.
While in Session
1) Use adaptive tech such as cloud captioning, screen readers, personal frequency modulation (FM Systems), teletypewriters (TTY's) amplified phones, CCTV, braille, magnifiers.
2) Take note of environment, poor acoustics, volume patterns and accents.
3) Communicate fully and be flexible to all needs.
When the course begins
1) Create an inclusive environment
2) Encourage students to talk about concerns.
3) Use assistive technology to provide course outlines
Prior to class
1) Consult with a specialist
2) Choose course material early to allow for changing of formats
1) Try different methods.
2) Use computers to help.
Lacking the power of hearing
Frequent checks for comprehension/ understanding
Because students struggle with hearing understanding will be slow and teachers should be flexible and check student comprehension
Provide visible information
Turn all audio information into visual where possible. Provide flashcards for story telling etc.
Teach note taking skills
Students may not have learned the ability especially when hard of hearing. Explain to students how they can record what they learn to study back from it visually in the future.
Expose new vocabulary in a variety of different ways
Try to vary the ways in which new vocabulary is introduced
Use Graphic organisers
This allows students to visualize their thoughts
Invite small group discussions-
Deaf students will communicate with each other better and work and learn well together.
High Incidence Disabilities
Interventions / Accomodations
Assessment and IEP Development
Competency-Based Education / Mastery Learning
Students progress at their own pace and advance only after they master specific knowledge or skills.
Use Scaffolded Instruction
Structure and support students' learning to enable them to build on existing experience and knowledge while learning new skills.
Select content that is familiar in order to allow students to focus more on learning the new skill.
Model the steps involved in completing a task until students can complete the task independently.
Use written prompts or guided examples to assist students' mastery of the material. Phase out this support over time.
Universal or specialized programs to reduce challenging behaviour and create a more congenial learning environment. Consistently praise good behaviour to encourage its reoccurrence.
Students work in pairs or small groups, and alternate between the role of tutor and tutee. This also boosts social interaction.
Studies show feedback to be very effective. Whether verbal, written or digital, feedback from both teachers and peers works to align students' effort with learning outcomes.
Tailor the curriculum and instruction to meet the needs of diverse individual learners.
Social and Emotional Learning
Interventions that focus on the social and emotional dimensions of learning, instead of only the cognitive or academic parts.
Change seating arrangements.
Students may be able to focus more easily when sitting close to the teacher
Foster Listening Skills.
Praise students focusing and paying attention
Set clearly defined rules.
Enforce them consistently.
Behavioural Intervention Strategies
Put mixed ability groups to work in competition with each other.
Use these to break down writing tasks into simpler, easier to manage chunks.
Inspire students and track their learning progress more easily.
Personalised, self-paced learning with an insistence on mastery of material.
Text-to-speech (TTS) Software
A digital aid to students with reading difficulties
A handheld device for reading printed text out loud.
Literacy software for struggling learners.
Use video to create interactive, engaging lessons.
Virtual Reality / Augmented Reality
Since 2014, education companies have started to produce interactive learning software, augmented books and lesson plans aligned with K-12 Common Core standards.
Specific Learning Disabilities
Universal Design For Learning
Include a statement in your syllabus inviting students to talk with you and the disability services office about disability-related issues.
Clearly and early in a course define course requirements, announce the dates of exams, and tell students when assignments are due
Point out campus resources available to all students such as tutoring centers, study skills labs, counseling centers, and computer labs.
Provide printed materials early to allow students sufficient time to read and comprehend the material.
Use multi-modal methods to present classroom material, in order to address a variety of learning styles and strengths (e.g., auditory, visual, kinesthetic).
When teaching a lesson, state objectives, review previous lessons, and summarize periodically.
Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information.
Read aloud what you write on the board or present on an overhead visual.
Keep instructions brief and uncomplicated. Repeat them word-for-word.
Allow time for clarification of directions and essential information.
Use captioned videos and know how to turn on the captioning feature.
Provide study guides or review sheets.
Have multiple methods for course assessment
Stress organization and ideas rather than mechanics when grading in-class writing assignments and assessments.
Design distance learning courses with accessibility in mind.
Classroom and Assignment Accommodation
Assist the student in finding effective peer note-takers from the class. Alternatively, you could provide the student with a copy of your lecture notes or outline.
Allow the student to tape record lectures.
Allow the student additional time to complete in-class assignments, particularly writing assignments.
Provide feedback and assist the student in planning the workflow of assignments. (Especially important)
Provide assistance with proofreading written work.
Extended exam time, typically time and one half to double time
To take exams in a room with reduced distractions.
The assistance of a reader, scribe, or word processor for exams.
The option of an oral exam.
To use spelling and grammar assistive devices for essay exams.
To use a calculator for exams.
Multi disciplinary Approach
Students Who Read Slowly or with Difficulty:
“Read-along” technique may be used with taped texts
Materials to allow learning of printed materials.
Students with Memory Problem/ Difficulty taking notes
A fellow student might share notes
The student might tape the lesson
The teacher might provide a copy of the lesson outline
Students Who Read Below the Expected Level
Educational videos and films or talking books can provide the general information that cannot be acquired from the printed page.
For Students Whose Handwriting Is Slow
A cassette recorder
A computer with word processing software could be used for written work or tests
For Students Who Have Difficulty with Spelling
A “misspeller’s dictionary”
Computerized spell checker
For Students Who Have Difficulty Organizing Time
A quiet, uncluttered homework space
Purchased texts that can be marked with a highlighter
A homework assignment diary coordinated between home and school
Study skills instruction
A personally-developed date-book or scheduler
Variable speech control (VSC)
tape recorders enable the listener to play audiotaped text faster or slower than it was originally recorded, without losing the actual sounds of the words.
are used to capture spoken information, such as a teacher’s instructions or a classroom lecture.
Organization/ Memory Technologies
Personal data managers
are available as
for a computer or as
electronic hand-held devices.
are software programs that enable the user to type notes into the computer in much the same way as he might write them down on a piece of paper.
Optical character recognition (OCR) systems
, when combined
with speech synthesis, might be thought of as reading machines.
Speech synthesis/Screen review
systems may also serve as a reading machine
can be used to play audiotaped
Variable speech control (VSC)
enable the listener to play audiotaped text faster or slower than it was originally recorded, without losing the actual sounds of the words.
use a built-in speech synthesizer to speak number, symbol or operation keys as they are pressed.
Electronic math worksheets
can help the user organize,
align and navigate through basic math problems on a
Written Language Technologies
: part of most word processing
programs. They are also available as stand-alone desktop
and pocket-size tools.
: also called “
They are used in combination with word processing programs to
check for errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization and word usage
, together with screen review software,
enable the user to hear text on a computer screen spoken aloud.
Speech recognition systems
allow a person to operate a computer by
speaking to it.
, which are now included as part of many word processing programs, help the user create outlines.
Brain storming/Mind mapping programs
enable writers to create a
diagram of their ideas before writing an outline
Word prediction programs
work together with
These programs predict the word a person wants to enter into the computer.
allow the user to customize the keyboard by changing the layout and appearance of the keys.
Speech and Language Impairment
Palette devices - to measure tongue contact with the hard palette
Anemometer: to measure respiration, nasal, and oral air flow.
Portable communication system using picture libraries
AAC (Augmented or Alternative Communication)
AAC is the use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the communication process.
Sign language, Dry-Erase boards, magazines cut-outs, photo albums, binders, non-electronic communication boards (using real items, pictures of items, or symbols to represent items)
These are more high-end communication tools such as electronic communication boards, and synthesized speech programs.
often used in conjunction with hardware and AACs.
Mobile Device/Computer Webcam to look at what facial muscles are used during speech
Virtual Speech Centers with dedicated apps for needs such as: articulation, following directions, and social skills.
Apps/Software that synthesizes speech from text
Built-in voice recorders to listen back and practice
Develop a procedure for the student to ask for help.
Use a peer-buddy system when appropriate.
Permit students the time they require to express themselves
Be a good speech model
Use gestures that support understanding.
Devise alternate procedures for an activity with student.
Use active listening
Ensure that the student has a way to appropriately express their wants and needs.
Encourage student to ask for clarification if they don’t know what something means.
Work at the student's pace.
Focus on interactive communication..
Use tactile and visual cues
Incorporate vocabulary with unit being taught.
Augmentative communication device (synthesized speech, print output, etc.)
Ensure that the student has access to their (portable) communication system across all contexts, all of the time.
Design tests and presentations that are appropriate for the student (written instead of oral).
these are the building blocks that
I would like to implement in
my own classroom
Counseling and guidance for parents, children and teachers regarding speech disorders.
Speech and language services for the prevention of communication disorders and rehabilitation of children with impairments
Referrals for medical or other professionals needed in order for rehabilitation
Reduce unnecessary classroom noise as much as possible.
Provide a quiet spot for the student to work if possible.
Have the student sit in an accessible location to frequently monitor their understanding.
The Talk Light
These lights flash according to noise. Allows for the students to monitor the noise level.
Allows a chance for students to calm down by listening to soothing music.
Allows students to monitor their behavior visually over time.
Encourages students' good behavior.
Multi-sensory Integrated Technology Programs
Gives sensory cues for emotional engagement.
Computer Learning Programs
Allows for a fun and positive learning environment.
Be sensitive to the student's needs.
Educate yourself about the student's disability, and know what sets them off.
Try to do everything possible to prevent emotional distress.
Collaborate with parents, other teachers, and school staff to deal with the student in the best manner possible.
Try to make them believe that they're in control of their behavior.
Reinforce student's mindset through nice words and positive comments.
Students may need space and time to cool off.
State clearly, and agree to, what is acceptable behavior and what isn't.
State rules clearly and the rewards for following and the consequences for breaking them.
Be persistent in enforcing the rules.
Model what an acceptable learning environment is.
Consider who's sitting where, and what materials they're around.
Make sure you don't overwhelm anyone, and give short and simple instructions to follow.
Selection from these and other possibilities should be based on the individual needs of each child.
Hearing Impairment (hearing loss
Other Health impairments
Deaf-Blindness and Deafness
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Visual impairment, including blindness