13 IDEA Categories - 10/2020 Cohort 7, References, The DSM 5 (Diagnostic…
13 IDEA Categories - 10/2020 Cohort 7
Specific Learning Disability High incidence around 34%
Effects 1 in 10 People
Creativity, Spacial Awareness, Entrepreneurs, Inventors, Engineers, Architect
Talk to Text, Audio Books, Mind Mapping Software, Word Process, Spell Check, Special Fonts
Orton-Gillingham Phonics Approach, Reading to Children, Large Print, Avoid Harsh Lighting, Build Opportunities for Success, Ensuring Kids they are intelligent but learn differently
Similar to Dyslexia
on how to Teach Students with Dyscalculia
Non-Verbal Learning Disability
Students excel with Verbal Skills but have difficulty in other skills
Poor Visual, Spacial, Inter-Personal Skills Affects Math, Reading and Social Interactions
Results in Problems with Social and Interpersonal Relationships, Understanding Others, Math, Handwriting, Understanding the Big Picture, Coordination, Figurative Language
This is not on the Autism Spectrum
Similar to this
Strengths: Verbal skills, Vocabulary, Listening Skills, Reading Comprehension, Memory, Details
Point Out Patterns, Be Literal, Illustrating Part to Whole and Whole to Part Relationships, Think Out loud so they can Hear, Explain what to Do and Why
Talk to Text, Word Processing
Playing with Clay, Pencil Grips, Letter Tracing, Lined Paper
Auditory Processing Disorder
Hearing is normal but unable to process sounds normally
Technologies & Strategies
Text to Type Software Noise Canceling Headphones, Reducing Background Noise
Also Known as SLD Includes a variety of Learning Disabilities involving reading, writing, speaking, listening, reasoning or math
Does not affect intellectual ability
All these students notice as early at Kinder that they cannot learn like their peers. This can cause poor self-esteem, self doubt, withdrawal, anxiety, discouragement, feelings of failure. But they can learn! As teachers we need to find the way they learn best and help them achieve!
High Incidence This is the most commonly reported disability accounting for 34%
Link to Lori's Plan for Helping Students who struggle in her
Other Health Impairment Low incidence around 7.5%
Health Impairment by IDEA
Sickle cell anemia
Students with diabetes
How can diabetes affect
a student’s learning?
Needs addressed by IEP plan
Check blood glucose before and during the class
Allow free use of bathroom and access to water Administer insulin
Nutritional needs, meals and snacks
Full participation in all school-sponsored activities
Absences without penalty for doctors' appointments and diabetes-related illness
If a serious high or low glucose episode occurs, the student should be excused with an opportunity for retake
Global Medical Cures
Goals: Health & Learning
To maintain target blood glucose
accurate insulin/medication dosing
exercise on a regular basis
monitor food intake
Increased Heart Rate
What a teacher can do?
Have the student eat or drink fast acting carbs
(cake, candy, juice, etc.)
Test blood glucose after 10 min
Contact school nurse, parents, or 911
Get resources at
American Diabetes Association
Technology to help your child manage diabetes
an activity food and glucose tracker
App: Glucagon for injection
provide steps how to give glucagon in an emergency
More resources at
My Southern Health
Parents' information for their diabetes children
Understand 504 Plan or Individualized Educational Program (IEP)
Always ready 'Low Blood Sugar Kit'
The Diabetes Council
A child with another health impairment (one not listed in IDEA’s definition) may be found eligible for special services and assistance. What’s central to all the disabilities falling under “Other Health Impairment” is that the child must have:
limited strength, vitality, or alertness due to chronic health problems; and
an educational performance that is negatively affected as a result.
The Center for Parent Information & Resources
Autism Spectrum Disorder Low incidence 2%
The CDC defines ASD** as a developmental disability that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges. There is often nothing about how people with ASD look that sets them apart from other people, but people with ASD may communicate, interact, behave, and learn in ways that are different from most other people. The learning, thinking, and problem-solving abilities of people with ASD can range from gifted to severely challenged. Some people with ASD need a lot of help in their daily lives; others need less.
Other Conditions that fall under that were previously diagnosed seperately, now fall under the umbrella of ASD
Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
Signs and Symptoms
People with ASD often have problems with social, emotional, and communication skills. They might repeat certain behaviors and might not want change in their daily activities. Many people with ASD also have different ways of learning, paying attention, or reacting to things. Signs of ASD begin during early childhood and typically last throughout a person’s life.
Children or adults with ASD might:
not point at objects to show interest (for example, not point at an airplane flying over)
not look at objects when another person points at them
avoid eye contact and want to be alone
have trouble relating to others or not have an interest in other people at all
have trouble understanding other people’s feelings or talking about their own feelings
prefer not to be held or cuddled, or might cuddle only when they want to
appear to be unaware when people talk to them, but respond to other sounds
be very interested in people, but not know how to talk, play, or relate to them
repeat or echo words or phrases said to them, or repeat words or phrases in place of normal language
repeat actions over and over again
estimated at one in 160 children has an ASD. (Average figure)
Prevelence of ASD is increasing globally due to improved awareness, expansion of diagnostic criteria, better diagnostic tools and improved reporting.
Autism is diagnosed at a much higher rate in males than females. While the discrepancy continues to fall, there is an emerging consensus that the actual ratio is 3 to
The exact cause of ASD is unknown. The most current research demonstrates that there’s no single cause.
Some of the suspected risk factors for autism include:
having an immediate family member with autism
being born to older parents
low birth weight
a history of viral infections
Types of Treatment
Behavior and Communication Approaches
Support in School
- act as as sort of guide of translator between the Autistic student and the neurotypical [environment]. They also help with organization, time-management, and other executive functions.(
- due to deficits with executive function, students with ASD often have difficulty with time management, and often receive additional time for assignments and exams. The help of an Autism Aide may mitigate this need.
- students may require additional or more detailed instructions. They may forget to write down assignments or not understand the whole as a sum of its parts. The help of an Autism Aide may mtigate this need,
If you are thinking about changing your child’s diet, talk to the doctor first or with a registered dietitian to be sure your child’s diet includes the necessary vitamins and minerals for their growth and development.
There are no medications that can cure ASD or treat the core symptoms. However, there are medications that can help some people with ASD function better. For example, medication might help manage high energy levels, inability to focus, anxiety and depression, behavioral reactivity, self-injury, or seizures.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
- A condition of one of the above types shown over time and to a marked degree, adversely affecting a child's education
High incidence of approximately 26%
Inability to learn, unexplained by intellectual, sensory or health factors🥴
Inability to build/ maintain interpersonal relationships with peers/ teachers😖
Inappropriate behaviour/ feelings under normal circumstances😵
Pervasive mood of unhappiness/ depression☹
Other signs: attention-seeking behavior, low self-esteem, problems working in groups, insecure, fearful, low achievement, frustration, off-task behavior, aggression (Howard, et al, 2007)🤬
Hogan, S (2015) . Emotional Disturbance. retrieved from
. 2. Parette, et al. (2007)
Reducing Overload in Students with Learning and Behavioural Disorders: The Role of Assistive Technology
Teaching Exceptional Children Plus Vol 4 Issue 1 . 3.
5. Co, J. (2016). Fraction and Percentage Calculator. Teachers of India. Retrieved from
Co, J. (2016). Fraction Calculator. Teachers of India. Retrieved from
7. Mills, V. (2009) Teaching Special Students. Retrieved from
8. Schloss, P & Smith, M (1998).
Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom
. Boston: Allyn & Bacon 9. Desautels, L. (2017). Reaching Students with Emotional Disturbances. Edutopia. Retrieved from
Talking word processors give auditory feedback to help student compose, format, sort and rearrange text on command
Talking Word Processor
Graphic Organisers - connect, clarify and edit thoughts (Lamb, 2003)
by Spectronics, for outlining, note-taking and draft-writing
Coggle Graphic Organiser
Speech Recognition Software
Text-to-speech software :pencil2:
Snap and Read
Diagnose if Reading or Writing is the trigger with
which gives a visual presentation of fractions
) Visual prompt for passage of time
) to tally achievements
Palm Devices with questions, prompts and feedback regarding the task eg
Microsoft Excel templates
Computer Devices with
behavior tracking sheets
to regulate noise levels
Too Noisy Pro
to monitor noise levels
Visual/ auditory Prompts
Self-Graphing Devices eg
Self-Check Behavior Checklist
Promote Social Behavior :silhouettes:
- help students make sense of social situations
- shares accurate social information that is easy to understand. They describe the setting, direct appropriate behavior, describe feelings of others and apply to different situations
Set short, manageable tasks
Repeat instructions frequently
Ask students to repeat instructions back to you
Use positive re-inforcement
Prevent over-stimulation eg noisy environments
Model respectful behavior
Solve problems privately not publically
Post class rules around the room - be clear
Establish consistent routines (Schloss and Smith, 1998)
Set up "
Brain-based Learning Stations
" in the classroom
Amygdala first aid (corner to recharge and calm down)
Hippocampus area (quiet table to study and make connections with material
Prefrontal cortex table - to make connections, collaborate and problem-solve
Supply a locked journal for safe self-expression
Have personal conversations with them about anything they're interested in
Desautels, L (2017)
Give rewards as incentives eg free time after a certain number of words learnt
Speech or Language Impairment
Low incidence around 20%
a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance
difficulties with the rhythm and timing of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases.
Stuttering: rapid-fire repetitions of consonant or vowel sounds especially at the beginning of words, prolongations, hesitations, interjections, and complete verbal blocks
problems with the quality or use of one's voice resulting from disorders in the larynx. Voice disorders are characterized by abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration.
errors in the production of speech sounds that may be related to anatomical or physiological limitations in the skeletal, muscular, or neuromuscular support for speech production.
Omissions: (bo for boat)
Substitutions: (wabbit for rabbit)
Distortions: (shlip for sip)
Two Common Speech Disorders- Apraxia and Dysarthria- Explained
the abnormal organization of the phonological system, or a significant deficit in speech production or perception
difficulties with morphological inflections (inflections on nouns, verbs, and adjectives that signal different kinds of meanings)
poor vocabulary development, inappropriate use of word meanings, and/or inability to comprehend word meanings
difficulty with multiple word meanings
nonspecific terms (e.g., thing and stuff), and indefinite references (e.g., that and there)
difficulty in acquiring the rules that govern word order and others aspects of grammar such as subject-verb agreement
these students produce shorter and less elaborate sentences with fewer cohesive conjunctions than their peers
problems in understanding and using language in different social contexts
confusion with rules for eye contact
difficulty requesting information and introducing topics
difficulty with inference and contextual or metaphorical language
Delays and disorders may range from so subtle that they have little or no impact on daily living and socialization to the inability to produce speech or to understand and use language.
Because of the importance of language and communication skills in a child's development even mild to moderate disorders or disturbances can have a profound effect on all aspects of life, sometimes isolating children from their peers and their educational environments
A multidisciplinary support network of education professionals, including general education teachers, special education teachers, and speech-language pathologists
The general education teacher and special ed teacher should work with the speech-language pathologist to incorporate strategies to help the student generalize strategies mastered in speech therapy
The referral process might look similar to the one laid out in my Special Needs Referral Plan, with the addition of an SLP from the Evaluation and Eligibility Meeting step through to Re-evaluation
First Words- a language program that has a number of applications for teaching those who are developing or reacquiring language functions
uses graphic presentations combined with synthesized speech to teach high-frequency nouns
Augmentative or Alternative Communication (AAC)
the use of symbols, aids, strategies, and techniques to enhance the communication process
manual and electronic communication boards for those with oral motor deficits
Electronic Fluency Devices
improve the fluency of people with stutters by playing the sound of the user's own voice back into their ear, slightly altered
EFD- Delayed Auditory Feedback
Aren't speech and language one in the same?
No, they are different. Speech is the verbal skills to produce language, while language is the whole.
Visual Impairment, including blindness - A child who has eyesight problems is considered to have a visual impairment. This category includes both partial sight and blindness. If eyewear can correct a vision problem, then it doesn’t qualify. Low incidence 1.2%
Electronic Mobility Aids
Ray Electronic Mobility Aid
Computer with optical character reader, voice output, Braille screen display and printer output
Braille lab signs and equipment labels; auditory lab warning signals
Adaptive lab equipment (e.g., talking thermometers and calculators, light probes, and tactile timers)
JAWS Screen Reader
Refreshable Braille Displays
Audiotaped, Brailled, or electronically formatted lecture notes, handouts, and texts
Verbal Descriptions of Visual Aids
Raised-line drawings and tactile models of graphic materials
What are typical accommodations for students with blindness?
Blind/Visual Impairment: Common Assistive Technologies
Low incidence around 0.1%
(little or no functional hearing)
or any other language is their 2nd language. It is possible to learn to read another language without speaking it.
(BSL, ASL or other) is their native language.
Basic Sign Language Phrases for Beginners | ASL
or incomplete (75% of deaf children parents don't communicate in SL with their child which result in no language and no education for the child and often leads to brain damage.
Hard of Hearing
(mild-to-moderate hearing loss)
might be used
need to be taken in account: acoustics, student's position in the classroom, teachers position in the classroom (should avoid talking from the back of the classroom while showing something on the screen)
: With FM systems, sound is transmitted directly from a microphone worn by a teacher or another person speaking, and transmitted via FM radio signals directly to an individual at a constant volume, regardless of the a person's distance from the FM microphone.
Infrared and Audio Induction Loop systems:
These assistive technologies may also be used for listening in large spaces. An Infrared system uses invisible light beams to carry sound to a personal receiver. Different types of attachments may be connected directly to a personal hearing aid or cochlear implant, or sound can be transmitted to headphones or speakers.
(for connectivity to media devices such as computers, TVs, tablets, smartphones, etc.): There are many accessories for hearing aids or cochlear implants that can connect to media devices. There are cables that plug directly from a hearing aid or cochlear implant into tablet devices or phones, or couplers which transmit sound wirelessly from hearing aids to media devices.
How to identify and help a struggling student?
Making Education Accessible to Deaf Children | Nyle DiMarco
What Is It Like To Be
transcribes spoken word into computer text
is an important vehicle to assist individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing with access to the media. TVs include settings for the user to enable closed captioning of programs that offer this feature. Closed captioning is also offered on many media devices. Logos with "cc" provided in TV guides or directly within the media program (i.e. YouTube) indicate when something is closed captioned. There are also theaters that offer open captioning for specific dates/times of movies. Check out
Described and Captioned Media Program
Real-time transcription systems
provide instant translation of the spoken word into English text using a stenotype machine, notebook computer, and real-time software. The stenography may occur onsite or remotely. One commonly used system is Communication Access Real-time Translation (CART) that translates speech to text, word for word. Two other systems are C-Print and Typewell. These systems capture the essence of a discussion, rather than word for word. Regardless of which system is used, the captions are viewed on a screen or individual monitor and the process is quick with virtually no delay from speech to text.
An instant transcription app that transcribes in live the words of a group of people.
The first is the live transcription of telephone conversations in more than 100 languages as well as the possibility of answering by voice synthesis.
app for Android is the equivalent of the Live Listen option included in basic iPhone settings. However, it offers more advanced functions in terms of sound volume adjustments and eliminates background noise.
app allows deaf and hard of hearing person to connect with emergency services in a nonverbal way.
Hearing Impairment Low incidence 5%
depending on severity, simple measures can be taken in class
intermediate- high severity
AT may be needed
Translation and text-to-speech devices
Audio visual FM
Sound field systems: Speakers set throughout classroom at strategic spots for the hearing impaired as well as those with ADHD or behavioral issues
sound-muting wall mounts to dampen sounds
arrange student seating so that the student is closer to the instructor
Deaf-Blindness - Low incidence around 0.9%
Students diagnosed with deaf-blindness have both severe hearing loss and vision loss. Students may be partially or fully blind and partially or fully deaf. Neccesary accommodations are dependent upon the individual student's needs.
Signs and Symptoms
: Students are typically diagnosed as infants prior to attending school
Slow or no reaction to loud voices or sounds
Lack of eye contact
Strong aversion to being touched
Genetic conditions (e.g. Usher syndrom and CHARGE syndrome)
Viral infections during pregnancy
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Trauma or injury
BrailleNote Note Taking device
This device gives students who are deafblind the ability to take notes and communicate easily. It features a refreshable braille display so that they can read as the go along.
This technology allows students with deaf-blindness to communicate via text message with their peers or their instructors.
Students who are not completely deaf may benefit from the use of hearing aids.
Tactaid Alert System
Tactaid is a system that allows individuals with deaf-blindness to receive coded sound information via vibrations on their skin.
Because these students are both deaf and blind, developing a way to communication with the student is especially important.
Translation of coursework or textbooks into braille
This gives students who are legally or fully blind access to class materials.
High Contrast and Enlarged Print
: This allows students who are not fully blind to more easily read classroom materials.
Light text on a dark background is more readable than dark text on a light background
In classes that require oral presentations, students should be allowed the use of an interpreter
- Directive instruction is not very useful. Instructors should use a "My Turn, Your Turn" approach.
The College of New Jersey
Department of Social Services
Illinois Teachers for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
is defined as a bone-, joint-, or muscle-related disability that is so severe that it negatively affects a child's educational performance. Low incidence around 1%
Examples by Categories
Impairments Caused by Musculoskelatal Disorders
Absence of Some Member
Impairments Caused by Degenerative Diseases
Neuromotor Impairments and other Causes
Fractures or Burns that Cause Contractures
Impact on Learning
The specific impact on learning of an individual is contingent upon the disease its severity, and individual factors. Two individuals with identical diagnoses may be quite different in terms of their capabilities.
Many students with orthopedic impairments have no cognitive, learning, perceptual, language, or sensory issues. However, individuals with neuromotor impairments have a higher incidence of additional impairments, especially when there has been brain involvement.
For most students with orthopedic impairments, the impact on learning is focused on accommodations necessary for students to have access to academic instruction.
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, in 2011 roughly 65,000 students received special education services for orthopedic impairments.
In order for the student to access the general curriculum, the student may require these accommodations:
Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills
Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly
Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices
Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements
Specialists may be involved in developing and implementing an appropriate educational program for the student
Physical Therapists who work on gross motor skills (focusing on the legs, back, neck and torso)
Speech-Language Pathologists who work with the student on problems with speech and language
Occupational Therapists who work on fine motor skills (focusing on the arms and hands as well as daily living activities such as dressing and bathing)
Adapted Physical Education Teachers, who are specially trained PE teachers who work along with the OT and PT to develop an exercise program to help students with disabilities
Other Therapists (Massage Therapists, Music Therapists, etc.)
Devices for Positioning and Mobility
specialized exercise equipment
specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development
Devices to Access Information
speech recognition software
screen reading software
augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards)
academic software packages for students with disabilities
Gargiulo, R.M. (2006). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
General Information. (2011). Orthopedic Impairments.
Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R. & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Exceptional lives: Special education in today's schools. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
Orthopedic Impairments. (2013). Project IDEAL.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Low incidence around 0.18%
Education Strategies and Resources
:silhouettes: :silhouettes: :silhouettes:
mild to moderate TBI
Rehabilitation Act, 1973
Direct Instruction (DI)
clearly stated directions
opportunities for student response
immediate feedback / error correction
Classroom management and routines
extra time for tasks
instruction provided in multiple ways
The CDC defines TBI
as a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury. Everyone is at risk of a TBI, especially children and older adults. The leading causes of TBI are car accidents and falls.
Areas of Impairment
Cognition; language; attention; memory; abstract thought; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; and speech, are all potential areas of impairment with TBI.
:star: TBI is categorized as a low incidence disability according to the US Department of Education. It accounts for less than 0.5% of the students served under IDEA. :
TBI in Kids
National Center for Education Statistics (
) CDC (
) Brainline.org (
) Engelmann, S., & Carnine, D. W. (1982). Theory of instruction. Farmer, J. E., & Peterson, L. (1995). Pediatric traumatic brain injury: Promoting successful school reentry.
:check: :check: :check:
smart devices and laptops
apps for TBI patients
talking clocks, calendars, watches
Occurs when someone has 2 or more disabilities spanning more than 2 or more of the 13 IDEA Categories. The combination of these disabilities causes severe needs that cannot be accomodated in a special education classroom. Deaf-blindness is not included in this category. Low incidence around 2%
Intellectual Disability + Deafness
Cerebral Palsy + Autism
Orthopedic Impairment + Blindness
Every combination excluding deaf-blindness
Lee, A. (2020, October 22). The 13 Disability Categories Under IDEA. Retrieved October 30, 2020, from
Multiple Disabilities. (2019, April 16). Retrieved October 30, 2020, from
Multiple Disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2020, from
Watson, S. (n.d.). Strategies for Supporting Students With Multiple Disabilities. Retrieved November 02, 2020, from
Severe and Education of individuals With Multiple Disabilities - Definition and Types of Severe and Multiple Disabilities. (n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2020, from
(n.d.). Retrieved November 02, 2020, from
Impact on Learning
Most students with multiple disablities also qualify for severe disabilities. Because this category can include any and all diagnoses, it is hard to pinpoint what specific impacts on learning this would cause. My suggestion would be to look at all of the impacts on learning in this map. Then combine them in every single way possible.
Low - 2%
glasses or sight enhancer (magnifying glasses)
Modifying life skill devices (handbars for toileting, sensors to alert when to toilet, modified toothbrushes/hairbrushes, etc.)
anything and everything listed in the other categories
early intervention involving physical therapy (swallowing, breathing control, muscle inflexibility, strength, etc.)
safety and evacuation plans
integration of student into social environment
physical arrangement of classroom
Intellectual Disability (ID)
Students exhibit below-average intellectual functioning and limitations in adaptive behavior. Low incidence, around 3%
Fragile X syndrome
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
Environmental & other causes
Mild to Moderate Disabilities
IQ Range: 35-69
Language: Limited to Reasonable
Reading & Writing: Basic to Reasonable
Physical Problems: Sometimes- Rarely
Severe to Profound Disabilities
IQ Range: < 35
Language: Basic or None
Reading & Writing: Minimal to None
Physical Problems: Common
Organizations providing support for ID
Extra Time for completing tasks/ tests
Earplugs during independent work/ tests
Large Text Test
Stanberry, K., & Raskind, M. H. (2019, September 26). Assistive Technology for Kids with Learning Disabilities: An Overview. Retrieved October 31, 2020, from
Special Education Referral Process. (2013). Retrieved October 31, 2020, from
Young, D., & MacCormack, J. (2018, May 04). Assistive Technology for Students with Learning Disabilities. Retrieved October 28, 2020, from
Teach one step at a time
Clear & concise instructions
Multiple opportunities for practicing skills
Graphic Organizers (Memory)
Electronic Math Worksheets
Agustin, J. (2015, March 15). Dyscalculia: Tips & Tricks to Help Students [Video]. YouTube
The NVLD Project. (2019, November 6). Non-Verbal Learning Disability for the Classroom [Video]. YouTube.
The National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2013, March 5). What is Non-Verbal Learning Disability? [Video]. YouTube
Parette, H., Crowley, E., Wojcik, B. (2007, September). Reducing Overload in Students with Learning and Behavioral Disorders: The Role of Assistive Technology. TECPlus.
Understood. (2014). Graphic of Auditory Processing Disorder: What you are seeing in your high schooler [Infographic]. Understood Website.
The Understood Team. Dysgraphia: What you need to know. Understood Website.
The Understood Team. Lee, A. The 13 Disability Categories Under IDEA. Understood Website.
The Understood Team. What is Dyslexia. Understood Website.
The Understood Team. Martin, J. 5 Myths About Assistive Technology. [Video] YouTube.
The Understood Team. Gillis, M. What is Dyslexia. [Video] YouTube.
Young G. & MacCormack J. (2014, June 10). AssistiveTechnology for Students with Learning Disabilities. LD @ School.
The DSM 5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) Diagnostic Criteria for ASD
To meet diagnostic criteria for ASD according to DSM-5, a child must have persistent deficits in each of three areas of social communication and interaction (see A.1. through A.3. below) plus at least two of four types of restricted, repetitive behaviors (see B.1. through B.4. below).
A.Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, as manifested by the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text):
Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity, ranging, for example, from abnormal social approach and failure of normal back-and-forth conversation; to reduced sharing of interests, emotions, or affect; to failure to initiate or respond to social interactions.
Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction, ranging, for example, from poorly integrated verbal and nonverbal communication; to abnormalities in eye contact and body language or deficits in understanding and use of gestures; to a total lack of facial expressions and nonverbal communication.
Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understand relationships, ranging, for example, from difficulties adjusting behavior to suit various social contexts; to difficulties in sharing imaginative play or in making friends; to absence of interest in peers.
Specify current severity:Severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior.
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following, currently or by history (examples are illustrative, not exhaustive; see text):
1 .Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypes, lining up toys or flipping objects, echolalia, idiosyncratic phrases).
Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior (e.g., extreme distress at small changes, difficulties with transitions, rigid thinking patterns, greeting rituals, need to take same route or eat same food every day).
Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus (e.g., strong attachment to or preoccupation with unusual objects, excessively circumscribed or perseverative interests).
4 Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g. apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement).
C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities, or may be masked by learned strategies in later life).
D. Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.
E. These disturbances are not better explained by intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder) or global developmental delay. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur; to make comorbid diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, social communication should be below that expected for general developmental level.
Other Health Impairment by Grace Hwang
[The Diabetes Council]
[Global Medical Cures]
[Diabetes in School]
[American Diabetes Association]
[My Southern Health]