IDEA (14 Disabilities Recognized by the Law)
(14 Disabilities Recognized by the Law)
Orthopedic Impairment is defined as an orthopedic condition which adversely affects a student's performance.
They include: *congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member, etc
Impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.)
Impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)
The teacher should be aware of the impairment and how it affects the student
Physical and occupational therapists may be required to help the teacher make classroom adjustments
Specially trained PE teachers to develop a suitable exercise program
Consideration needs to be given to the layout and access of the classroom
If the student is in a wheelchair or requires a walking aid, can they still access the classroom, their table and a bathroom?
A student with impairments caused by spinal injuries may required a specialised table or seat to feel comfortable.
Most students with orthopedic impairments have no cognitive impairments.
Special needs care should focus on being as inclusive as possible.
It is a low incidence condition
Of the 5,971,495 students in the US receiving special needs education, just 1.1% of those have orthopedic impairments. (ProjectIdeal)
As the severity of impairments vary, the technology/facilities available need to be specific for each student's needs.
specialized exercise equipment
specialised chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development.
Milestones are met much slower than peers
Struggles to Pay Attention
Unable to self-regulate well
How to Help
No Tech Tools
Staff and student actions
Low Tech Tools
Non-electronic items such as sticker pages to improve fine motor skills
Low-cost and easy to use
Mid Tech Tools
Simple electronic devices such as a calculator, projector, or headphones
High Tech Tools
High-cost and may require training
Devices such as iPads with apps to assist with a particular delay
Modifications and Accommodations
Directions Read Aloud
Limit visual distractions in the classroom
High (4% of kids between ages 2-11 in USA are diagnosed DDs)
Traumatic Brain Injury
A TBI usually causes cognitive, psychosocial and physical deficits.
Teacher to communicate closely with the school, parents and hospital in order to examine the individual needs of the child.
Set up a Functional Behavior Assessment to examine exactly what areas the child needs help in. Document any evidence of aggression, emotional disturbance or other behaviors observed. Make a note of time and place.
Allow additional time for student to relearn information
seat students near a quieter peer in order to avoid over excitement or stress.
Divide tasks in small manageable sections
Provide a safe space with in the classroom for 'quiet time' or 'time out'. The student can use this area to recharge and relax.
Allow extra time for transition periods.
Provide ramps if nedded
Altering current teaching materials
Offer the course materials in large print.
Offer students audio copies of books and materials.
Allow students to use graphic organisers to help visualise information.
Provide external aids to help students who suffer from memory, organisation, attention or processing speed problems.
Altering expectations of student participation
Allow students extra time for tests/exams.
Reduce the quantity of written work required to reduce stress and allow students to focus on more beneficial activities.
Change the form of assessment- e.g providing a multiple choice exam to reduce the strain of memory recall.
augmentative communication devices
wheelchair, walker, scooter
memory notebook or ICT device
Children with a TBI often come back to school whilst they are still in the recovery stages.
Difficulty with physical mobility
Self care skills
Emotional and behavioural issues
Difficulty setting goals and completing sequence activities
Problems with organization
Other Health Impairment
Monitor Glare guards
Flicker free Monitors
Browser options and filters for flashing images
Due to 'Other Health Impairments' covering such a wide range of conditions it is is difficult to give an exact number for incidence. However, it would be reasonable enough to assume that when combined, these conditions constitute a relatively high incidence.
Remove allergens such as purfurme, paint, and spray from the learning environment
Provide rest periods
Train for proper dispensing of medication/use of inhaler
Low incidence - around 1.1% of children assessed as having intellectual disability in US
Steps towards an inclusive classroom
High social expectations for all
Adapt task modality to strengths
Spoken assignments for those who struggle to write
Encourage conversation and inclusion
Foster Independence by assigning specific roles
Provide opportunities to make choices
Concrete over abstract ideas
Concise simple instructions
Allow for more time (Accommodations & Modifications)
Divide units into manageable chunks
Allow frequent breaks
Use visual cues to highlight behavior expectations
Review classroom rules and consequences
Songs, chants and mnemonics
Associated color coding
Voice recognition software
Allow to learn at individuals pace
Contact with wider world
Sense of normality, acceptance and belonging
How to Help
Shorten reading/writing assignments.
Adapt/eliminate phonics assignments.
Use the "CC/Subtitle" function on Smartboards.
Real-Time Transcription Devices
CART (Communication Access Real-time Translation)
ASL interpreter, instructor
Don't ask students to read or write while listening to you, as this prevents them from speech reading.
Include visual aids (captioned videos, drawings, handouts, etc).
Ensure lighting is bright so students can effectively speech read.
Give priority seating with clear view of teacher and visuals.
Use gestures and body language to support speech reading.
: Low (0.2% of students aged 6-17 in U.S.A)
Specific Learning Disability
- nearly half of all disabled children are labeled in the SLD category.
SLD can affect a persons reading, writing, listening, speaking, spelling, mathematical and thinking skills.
Modifications for children with dysgraphia and dyslexia
Use multi sensory techniques. Practice writing in the air and forming letters in materials such as sand and shaving foam.
Verbalize the forms of letters as the child is drawing them. Focus on spelling using phonetics and sounding out.
Don't mark down for spelling. Have an LF around for help with reading during a test.
Accommodations for children with dysgraphia and dyslexia
allow students to use spell check, and other ICT resources. The use of speech to text will also aid a child with dysgraphia.
Allow extra time on written assignments and do not mark off for spelling.
Use assistive technologies
Make sure if you use an assistive technology that you as the teacher learn how to use correctly first. These are here to help, not to hinder!
The use of speech to text, pen readers and typing programs are all very effective assistive technologies.
Number shark online game
Nessy fingers typing game
Using graphic organizers for written tasks will help a student to better organize their thoughts before writing a longer piece of work.
provide immediate corrective feedback
Use process questions such as, "where else can we use this strategy?"
Make sure children who struggle with reading and writing are still practicing these skills. Provide extra support but also the opportunity to develop these areas of learning.
Students with dyslexia
need a daily routine and it helps to write the key points in a class on the white board.
use a recording device to speak into before the lesson. Students can then play back any instructions, readings or written directions at their own pace.
Dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are all classed as an SLD.
Signs of a SLD in Elementary school include difficulties with:
learning the alphabet , following directions, reading out loud, putting thoughts into words, holding a pencil and comprehension.
How to Help
Braille translation software
Screen enlargement software
(one-on-one service provider trained to help deafblind students interact with world)
Minimal background noise
Consistent furniture layout
Extra space for assistive technologies and tools
Give additional time to understand and respond.
Communicate via the student's preferred method.
Incorporate "Total Communication" (visual media, speech, sign language, fingerspelling, braille, etc).
Provide hands-on, multisensory learning experiences.
Set predictable routines and clear transitions.
Provide ample break time to prevent fatigue.
Allot extra time to practice, review, respond, and take tests.
: Low (0.03% of all special ed. students in USA)
How to Help
Preferred seating: Allow the student to sit near the front of class where it is easier for them to listen to the teacher.
Notetaking: an aide can assist with notetaking if they are unable to hear the teacher.
ALDs: Assistive listening devices help amplify the sounds a student needs to hear.
. 2 to 3 out of every 1000 children are born with a detectable level of hearing loss in one or both ears ("Quick Statistics About Hearing", 2016).
-- High Incidence
17.1 Million Children in the US have a psychiatric disorder
Characterized, but not limited to:
Anxiety Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Psychotic Disorder, Eating Disorder, & Conduct Disorder
Create an Appealing Classroom Climate
Keep a consistent and predictable schedule
Provide verbal ques for easier transitions or for some kids, a silent timer helps them keep track of times
Create a calm and inviting classroom - don't over decorate or over stimulate
Reduce stress by giving longer time to complete tasks or smaller assignments. Small accomplishments can be huge leaps.
Utilize Outside Resources
Look to the school counselor for help
Help the student develop tools for successful social interactions
Keep good communication with the parents about behaviors at school and home
Rely on the school to make recommendations for outside services if needed
Engage in social activities with their peers
Create a quiet space for taking breaks frequently
Give positive affirmations to build self esteem
Multiple disabilities refers to “concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.)
Special eduction guide
NICHCY lists several common characteristics, including hampered speech and communication skills, challenges with mobility and a need for assistance in performing everyday activities. It’s also worth noting that medical conditions such as seizures and “water on the brain” (hydrocephalus) can accompany multiple disabilities
Special Education guide.
What can we do?
Safe Environment, classroom modifications, where needed
Organisation and Management
A student with multiple disabilities may be able to learn and achieve at a high level, given the resources and opportunity to do so.
iPads and similar devices with apps designed for text-to-voice, picture selection, or other forms of communication
Speech & Language Impairment
What is AUTISM
Autism Spectrum Disorder
a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts
3 types of Autism
(classic autism) this includes language delays, social and communication challenges and unusual behaviors and interests.
, milder symptoms of autistic disorder. They have many of the same challenges above but usually don't have problems with language or intellectual disability.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
, milder symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and Autistic Disorder. Usually only have social and communication challenges.
1 in every 68 kids are effected with some sort of autism spectrum disorder.
How to Help
Provide multiply media options for each kids specific learning style. Some are visual learners and some are audio learners. You can use video tapes, to pictures, to audio tapes.
To prevent sensory overload, providing each student with a quiet corner, where they can go to escape the noise of the classroom and rest. Giving them headphones or ear plugs may help with blocking out the noise.
A detailed daily schedule will help with transition moving from classroom, to lunch, to the schoolyard, and other destinations.
Fidgets or tools that they can touch, will help relieve stress and improve focus.
Build 5 minute breaks between tasks, this will help with better transition to the next task.
Accommodations and Modifications for Students with Disabilities
Seating and Positioning
Blocks for chairs, straps, trays, rolled towel, bean bag chair
Activities of Daily Living (ADLS)
Adapted eating and drinking utensils, restroom modifications, and aids for grooming
Adaptable on and off switches, remote control switch access
Walkers, grab rails, manual or powered wheelchairs, and building modifications and adaptions, and canes for the blind
Hearing aids, classroom amplification, signaling device, captioning, and screen flash on computer
Enlarged images, books on tape, eyeglasses, increased contrast, large print books, reading machine, braille keyboard or notetaker, scanners etc
Communication boards and wallets, eye gaze boards, simple voice output device, electronic communication devices, communication enhancement software
Physical Education, Leisure, and Play
Adapted toys and games, adapted puzzles, universal cuff to hold crayons, markers, modified stampers and scissors, adapted sporting equipment, arm support for drawing, computer games
Change in text size, spacing, color, background color, use pictures with texts, adapted page turning, bookstands, talking electronic device, highlighted text, recorded material
Pencil with adapted grip, adapted paper, slantboard, typewrite, computer, word processing with spell/grammar checking, talking word processor :pencil2:
Keyboard with built in accessibility options on a standard computer, key guard, arm support, track ball or track pad, mouth stick, head pointer, touch screen
What is Autism?
Signs and Symptoms
Not point at objects
Avoid eye contact
Not respond to name by 12 Months
Delayed speech and language skills
Repeat phrases over and over
Get upset over minor changes
Have obsessive interests
Unusual reactions to smell, touch, taste
Visual Impairment Mind Map
Common problems caused by a TBI
How to Help
What is a Specific Learning Disability?
How to help