GENETICS OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER - Coggle Diagram
GENETICS OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive obsessions and/or compulsions that are disturbing and time-consuming
Obsessions are images, thoughts or urges that are intrusive associated with anxiety, distress, disgust and/or a sense of something being not-just-right.
Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental rituals, such as checking for safety, inspecting for cleanliness, repetitive counting or ordering.
The obsessions recur, re-activate the compulsions and the cycle of obsessions and compulsions continues.
Age of onset follows a bimodal distribution, peaking at
adolescence (13–18 years) and early adulthood.
Early-onset OCD has been associated with a stronger genetic component .
OCD can be a severely impairing disorder of quality of life, especially affecting social relationships.
OCD patients experiencing suicidal ideation and lifetime suicide attempts.
OCD patients exhibit major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia and social anxiety disorder
OCD can be associated with Tourette syndrome including
stroke, traumatic brain injury.
genetic and environmental risk factors-perinatal complications, childhood trauma, reproductive
response to infection-some cases of unusually abrupt early-onset OCD
stressful life events
familial recurrence risk estimates are even higher among the family members of probands for obsessive-compulsive
symptoms and behaviors
Hoarding and contamination/cleaning symptoms are reported to have the highest
Analyses of relatives of individuals with OCD and obsessivecompulsive
Tourette syndrome overlap in their genetic
Heritability from family and twin studies
monozygotic (MZ) twin correlation is more than twice as high as dizygotic (DZ) twin correlation
The heritability of obsessive compulsive symptoms is slightly lower in adults than in children for 12-year-old twins and 6-year-old
candidate genes related to neurochemical systems associated with the disorder
A recent GWAS in a sample of children and youth identified a locus in PTPRD.
genetic correlations between OCD symptoms and OCD case/control are moderate
CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS
memantine, glutamatergic anticonvulsant drugs, and ketamine, have been proposed based on genetic studies.
genetic factors in variable treatment responses, but no consensus exists due to lack of double-blind crossover designs, varied drugs, doses, and cutoffs.
drugs for OCD have been proposed glutamate-modulating drugs such as memantine as potential treatment options for OCD
memantine showed positive effects as an augmentation therapy in OCD
glutamatergic anticonvulsant drugs (lamotrigine and topiramate) and riluzole