Chapter 14: Quantitative Analysis: Descriptive Statistics - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 14: Quantitative Analysis: Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive analysis: statistically describing aggregating and presenting the constructs of interest or associations between these constructs.
Inferential analysis: statistical testing of hypotheses (theory testing).
Data coding: the process of converting data into numeric format.
Codebook: a comprehensive document containing detailed description of each variable in a research study.
Data entry: coded data can be entered into a spreadsheet, database, text file, or directly into a statistical program like SPSS.
Missing values: an inevitable part of any empirical data set.
Data transformation: it is necessary to transform data values before they can be meaningfully interpreted.
Frequency distribution: a variable summary of the frequency (or percentages) of individual values or ranges of values for that variable.
Central tendency: an estimate of the center of a distribution of values.
Arithmetic mean: the simple average of all values in a given distribution.
Median: the middle values within a range of values in a distribution.
Mode: most frequently occurring value in a distribution of values.
Statistic: any value that is estimated from a sample, such as mean, median, mode, or any of the later estimates.
Dispersion: refers to the way values are spread around the central tendency, how tightly or how widely are the values clustered around the mean.
Range: the difference between the highest and lowest values in a distribution.
Standard deviation: the second measure of dispersion, corrects for such outliers by using a formula that takes into account how close or how far each value from the distribution mean.
Variance: the square of the standard deviation.
Bivariate correlation: a number between -1 and +1 denoting the strength of the relationship between two variables.
P-value: the probability that a statistical inference is caused pure chance.
Significance level: represents the maximum level of rick that we are willing to take that our inference is incorrect.
Degree of freedom: the number of values that can vary freely in any calculation of a statistic.
Pearson product moment correlations: the correlations involve variables measured using interval scales.
Cross-tab: a table that describes the frequency (or percentage) of all combinations of two or more nominal or categorical variables.