What do we need to know in order to solve the Missy Baker case? - Coggle…
What do we need to know in order to solve the Missy Baker case?
Gene expression is the process by which the instructions in our DNA are converted into a functional product, such as a protein.
When the information in our DNA is converted into instructions for making proteins or other molecules, it's called gene expression
Gene expression is a tightly regulated process that allows a cell to respond to its changing environment
Transcription & Translation
RNA polymerase finds the promoter and binds to the DNA
Initiation occurs first- the ribosome subunits join together. The ribosome finds the mRNA and the tRNA carrying the start codon base pairs with the start codon on the mRNA
Once the ribosome finds the start codon, other tRNAs bring in the amino acids to join the growing polypeptide. The bond between the amino acids is a peptide bond.
The anticodon is found on the tRNA and base pairs with the mRNA.
The mRNA contains the codon, and this is what codes for the amino acid.
The amino acid is carried by the tRNA on the top of it.
A stop codon really means no amino acid- no amino acid is carried by these! As a result, the tRNA has no amino acid to add, the ribosome falls off of the mRNA, and the polypeptide is set free. The mRNA will be made into protein a few more times, and then is degraded.
RNA polymerase is an enzyme
It unwinds the DNA and begins to add the complementary RNA bases to build the mRNA
Double helix DNA and RNA BASES are its substrates
It produces mRNA
PCR steps: Denaturation, Annealing, and Extension
Denaturation - Double-stranded DNA is separated into two single strands by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs.
Annealing - Primers anneal at complementary sequences of the denatured DNA strands.
Extension - allows optimal polymerase activity of binding nucleotides to the annealed primer resulting in exponential amplification of the template strand.
Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method to separate DNA, RNA, or protein mixtures according to molecular size.
The molecules are separated through their polarity (DNA is negatively charged) and are attracted to the positive charge of the electrical field and the smaller the easy it goes through the well.
DNA & RNA structure
DNA is a nucleic acid, which is a polymer of individual monomers known as nucleotides. It has deoxyribose,it has one less oxygen than ribose. Its bases are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
Guanine pairs with cytosine. Adenine pairs with thymine. Guanine and Adenine are purines. Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidines.. Cotnains 2 strands, replicates itself, found in the nucleus, has one form, and can't leave the nucleus
RNA is a nucleic acid, which is a polymer of individual monomers known as nucleotides.
It has the three basic parts of all nucleotides
A five-carbon sugar called ribose
Its chemical formula is C5 H10 O5
A phosphate group
A nitrogenous base
RNA contains four nitrogenous bases:
Cytosine pairs with Guanine
Guanine has two rings (purine)
Cytosine has one ring (pyrimidines)
Uracil pairs with Adenine
Adenine has two rings (purine)
Uracil has one ring (pyrimidines)
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
Made to leave the nucleus
A deletion mutation occurs when part of DNA molecules is not copied during DNA replication. This uncopied part can be as small as a single nucleotide or as much as an entire chromosome.
By shifting the reading frame, frameshift mutations can change every amino acid that follows the point of the mutation. They can alter a protein so much that it’s unable to perform its normal functions.
A substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single “chemical letter” such as switching an A to a G). Such a substitution could:
Change a codon to one that encodes a different amino acid and cause a small change in the protein produced. This is a missense mutation.
Example: Sickle Cell anemia
Change a codon to one that encodes the same amino acid and causes no change in the protein produced. This is a silent mutation.
Change an amino-acid-coding codon to a single “stop” codon and cause an incomplete protein. A dangerous form of substitution. This is a nonsense mutation.
A insertion mutation occurs when part of DNA molecules is accidentally added during DNA replication. This added part can be as small as a single nucleotide or as much as an entire chromosome.