Judaism- The Yahwist Religion - Coggle Diagram
Judaism- The Yahwist Religion
Abram- (Abraham) the 1st patriarch of the Jewish people. First person to teach the idea that there was only one God. He was told he would be the father of a great people if he did as God told him
Sarah- (Sarai) Abrahams 1st wife and 1st matriarch. Believed to be a greater prophet than Abraham, she influenced him and spread teachings to women. Gave birth at 90 years old
Isaac- Abrahams second son and son of Sarah. Used as a test and almost sacrificed by Abraham but was saved by an angel. Considered the second patriarch and continued to spread monotheism.
Hagar- (Ha- Agar "this is the reward") was the daughter of King Pharaoh of Egypt and chosen to be Sarahs maid. She became Abrahams second wife.
Ishmeal- Abrahams first son and son of Hagar. He was banned from his fathers home for a while but then repented and was considered righteous.
Creation of the universe
Garden of Eden- God created a beautiful utopian garden location replete with luxurious trees bearing luscious fruits.
Adam- first man created by God, ancestor of all man kind.
Eve- first woman created by God, ansector of all man kind. God took one of Adam's ribs and formed Eve. He then brought her to Adam, who found contentment in joining with his new wife.
Serpent- was a physical animal which was part of the natural world. The most cunning of all the beasts convinced and pressured her to eat the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge. Eve then shared the fruit with Adam.
Tree of knowledge of good and evil- had fruit which would implant an evil inclination and an awareness of immorality in garden of eden.
Noah- A dependent of Adam and Eve. He was chosen by God to survive the great flood, built an ark and was the first zoo keeper.
Mitzvots in the Torah- 613 commandments- The important laws of the Jews which tell the Jewish people how they should live.
First 10 commandments
Do not kill
Honor your family
Do not steal
Rest every seventh day
Do not cheat and commit adultery
Don't take God's name in vain
Do not false witness
Don't make graven images
Do not covet stuff
You shall not have any other gods but God
Not to restrain her for servitude after having relations with her
The covenant is an agreement established long ago. An agreement that Jewish people would follow the law and God would deem them his chosen people. There are 2 main ones
You shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskins, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and you.
If you will obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my own possession among all peoples; for all the earth is mine, and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation...
Maimonides 13 Principles- the fundamental truths of Judaism and its foundation
Belief in the existence of the Creator, who is perfect in every manner of existence and is the Primary Cause of all that exists.
The belief in G‑d's absolute and unparalleled unity.
The belief in G‑d's non-corporeality, nor that He will be affected by any physical occurrences, such as movement, or rest, or dwelling.
The belief in G‑d's eternity.
The imperative to worship G‑d exclusively and no foreign false gods.
The belief that G‑d communicates with man through prophecy.
The belief in the primacy of the prophecy of Moses our teacher.
The belief in the divine origin of the Torah.
The belief in the immutability of the Torah.
The belief in G‑d's omniscience and providence.
The belief in divine reward and retribution.
The belief in the arrival of the Messiah and the messianic era.
The belief in the resurrection of the dead.
Temple destuction- Second temple was destroyed by the Roman Empire in 70 CE (Taught great lessons). ‘Sinat chinam’ - senseless hatred of one Jew for another. Ahavat Chinam’ - to communicate with each other, and respect each other, regardless of differences.
Apocalyptic Prophetic tradition- A way of thinking after destruction of the temple: the world will work itself out in usually with some account of the cosmic conflict between God and Satan and their respective forces. Deliverer figures, such as the Messiah
Messiah- (hoped-for deliverer)- Since the destruction of the Temple, in every generation there is an individual who has the potential to be the Moshiach. If at any moment the Jews are worthy of redemption, this person would be directed from Above to assume the role of the redeemer.
Political groups of Judaism during Roman Empire
Sadducess- believed in the establishment. They made peace with Rome and focused on religious ritual. They believed divine punishment and reward happen in this life.
Essenes- believed in withdrawing from the corrupt Temple system and the Empire. Live holy lives in an alternative world until God brought about the Kingdom without their help.
Pharisees- believed in radical personal holiness. Internalizing their religious law and God would give punishment and reward in the afterlife.
Zealots- believed in overthrowing the Roman Empire.God would bring about the Kingdom with their help
Expulsion of Jewish People
July 1306- Jews were expelled by King Phillip IV. 100,000 Jewish people were arrested and their belongings auctioned off. The king took the earnings.
1315- Louis son of King Phillip IV reversed the decree
1290- Jews were expelled from England by King Edward, many of them fleeing to France.
1322- Jews were expelled again
1128- Jews were expelled in France by King Phillip, a few years later they were allowed back.
1394- Expulsion was finally over
Reform- believe the laws and guidance in the Torah can be adapted for modern times; they believe the Torah was inspired by God but written by humans, so can be interpreted according to the times.
Conservative- keeps some requirements of Mosaic Law but adapts others to suit modern circumstances.
Orthodox- most religious. movement from eastern europe relocated to Israel and NY. Strict traditionalism. Services only in Hebrew. Only follow kosher law
Early Prophetic tradition- (before exile)- Moses served as an intermediary between the people and God’s word. Following Moses, God sent other prophets to communicate his messages. Prophecy continued until the beginning of the Second Temple period. (One of the prophets being Job)