Jimena Serrano P2 Skeletal System - Coggle Diagram
Jimena Serrano P2 Skeletal System
Types of bones and example
Long bone: long with expanded ends. Ex: arm and leg bones
short bone: almost equal in length and width. Ex: bones of the wrist and ankle
flat bone: plate-like shape with broad surface Ex: ribs, scapula, flattened skull bones
irregular bone: varied shape. Ex: vertebrae, some facial bones
Anatomy of the long bone
diaphysis central part of the long bone
epiphysis: the end part of a long bone intially growing separately from the shaft.
metaphysis: the neck portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
articular cartilage: connective tissue of the diarthrodial joints.
periosteum: a dense layer of vascular connective tissue
medullary cavity: hollow part of the bone that contains bone marrow
endosteum: a membrane lining the inner surface of the bony wall
spongy bone: lighter and less dense than compact bone
compact bone: hard, solid osseous tissue found on the cortex of all bones. diaphysis
distal epiphysis: located at the end of the long bone that is farther away from the center of the body
proximal epiphysis: the end of the long bone closest to the center of the body
Microscopic anatomy of bone tissue
the canals and the surrounding lamellae.
compact bone: consist of closely packed osteons or haversian systems.
osteon consists of the central canal called the osteonic canal.
hematoma formation: when the blood vessel leaks into the surroundings tissue
granulation tissue formation: produced during the repair phase
bony calllus formation: a soft callus replaces the blood clot that formed int he inflammatory stage
Bone fracture repair
greenstick: incomplete, and the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone.
Fissured: is an incomplete longitudinal
comminuted: is complete and fragments the bone.
transverse: is complete, and the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone.
oblique: occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone.
spiral: is caused by execcisve twisting of a bone.
Joints (and examples of each type)
Fibrous: fastened together by thin layer connective tissue. Ex:Suture between bones of skull, joint between the distal ends of tibia and fibula
Cartilage: articulating bones connected by hyaline cartilage. Ex: Joints between the bodies of vertebrae, pubic symphysis
Synovial: surrounded by a joint capsule of ligaments.
Ball-and-socket: articulates with cup-shaped cavity of another. Ex: shoulder, hip
Condylar: articulates with elliptical cavity of another. Ex: Joints betweens the metacarpals and phalanges.
Plane: Articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved Ex: joints between various bones of wrist and ankle, sacroiliac joints, joints between ribs 2 to 7 sternum
Hinge: Ex elbow, joints of phalanges
Pivot: articulates with ring of bone and ligaments Ex: joint between the atlas and dens of the axis
Saddle: the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another. Ex: joints between the carpal and metacarpal of thumb
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints
flexion: bending parts at a joint, so that the angle between the decreases
extension: straightening parts at a joint, so that the angle between them increases
lateral flexion: bending the head, neck, or trunk to the side
hyperextension straightening beyond normal anatomical position
abduction: moving a body part away from the midline
adduction: moving a body part toward the midline
dorsiflexion: ankle movement that brings the foot closer to the shin
plantar flexion: ankle movement that moves the foot farther from the shin; points the toes
roatation: movement of a part around an axis
circumduction: movement of a part so its ends follows a circular path
pronation: rotation of forearm so that the palm is facing downward or posteriorly
Supination: rotation of forearm so that the palm is facing upward or anteriorly.
Differences between male and female skeletons:
pelvic girdle: female hip bones are lighter, thinner, and have less evidence of muscular attachments. the female obturator foramina are triangluar, whereas the male's are oval. the females acetubla are smaller and the pubic arch is wider then corresponding structures of a male.
pelvic cavity: female pelvic cavity is wider in all diameters and is shorter, roomier, and less funnel-shaped. The distances between the femal ischial spines and ischial tuberosities are greater than in a male.
Sacrum: Female sacrum is wider, and the sacral curvature is bent more sharply posteriorly than in a male.
coccyx: female coccyx is more movable than that of a male
Osteoarthritis: cartilage destruction finger deformation thinning cartilage. cause: bone deformation, Joints injuries, obesity. symptoms: Tenderness, pain, stiffness. treatment: Prescriptions, physical therapy, cortisone injections.
Osteogenesis imperfecta: bones bent and shortened, broad forehead, barrel chest, round back. Cause: bone bowing seen infetal ultra sound. Symptoms muscle weakness, limb deformity, hearing loss.
Osteosarcoma: swelling of area/bone, causes hereditary, symptoms bone fracture, bone pain, Treatment: chemotherapy, radiation
Osteomyelitis: redness, swelling, purple skin, causes: bacteria travels in blood stream into bone, symptoms: chills, fever, treatment: surgical drainage
Paget's disease: bones are thickness and deformed bones, causes: exact cause is unknown, symptoms: bone deformity in legs or arms, Treatment: surgery, joint replacement
Names of all the bones anatomy term and common term/definition
nasal bone: located medial to the frontal processes of the maxillae
zygomatic: diamond shaped irregularly shaped bones that produce laterally
frontal bone: unpaired bone, boney structure that forms the anterior and superior portions of the skull
orbit: symmetrical paired structures separated by the nasal cavity .
maxilla: upper jaw, major bone of the face
mandible: jawbone, movable joint in the skull with temporal bone
manubrium: the thickest and strongest portion of the sternum.
cervical vertebrae: think bone is cylindrical shaped and located at the front of the vertebra
clavicle:collarbone, bone connects arm to body.
scapula: shoulder blade, connects the humerus with the clavicle.
sternum: t-shaped vertical bone that forms the anterior portion of the chest wall centrally
xipoid process: a tiny bone structure located at the center of the chest, just below the lower part of the sternum
ribs: consist of 12 ribs, 2 floating ribs, 7 true ribs and 5 false ribs.
vertebal column; composed of 33 vertebrae that include 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 soccygeal.
humerus: is the long bone in the arm that arms from the shoulder to the elbow
radius: one of the two large bones of the forearm.
ulna: is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the wrist
carpals: 8 small bones that make up the wrist that connects the forearm
metacarpals: palm bones, are the appendicular bones that form the intermediate part of the hand between the phalanges and the carpal bones.
coxal bone: hip
lilum: the upper portion of the hip bone and pelvis
sacrum: tailbone, triangular bone just below the lumbar
coccyx: tail bone, segment of the vertebral column
pubis: pubic bone, one of the 3 main bones that make up the pelvis.
ischium: a paired bone of the pelvis
femur; thigh bone only bone in thigh
patella: kneecap, its flat rounded triangular bone.
tibia: shinbone is the larger and stronger and anterior of the two bones in the leg.
Fibula: calf bone is a leg bone on the lateral side of the tibia.
tarsals: the seven bones that make up the ankle
metacarpals: are the five bones that make up the middle area of the foot
phalanges: digital bones in the hands and the feet