Unit 3, Racist thought and public policy intervention, Screen Shot 2023…
Racism and Unequal Opportunity
What is race?
Groups viewed as physically distinguishable poulations sharing common geographically based ancestory
Ace shapes how people relate to each other
based on belief that race reflects superiority/inferiority
share set of visible charactertics
vast majority of genetic variation occurs within racial groups not between the
race is an ideology, not biological
Race is a
What is radicalization?
Race social and political category
Racialized: bodies signed socially constructed "races"
What has it led to ?
formation of cultural belief sytes
development of complex hierarchies where people are treated differently
What are the gaps in education ?
differences among each race and education
View: fault of black families for education inequality
What is the volition and family culture argument?
cultural deprivation in groups explain why children are failing
Assumes system of meritocratic
What is the relationship between race and the myth of meritocracy?
What is the model minority myth?
hyper selectivity benefits all members of immigrant group -> generates ethnic capital, results in ethnic institutions like prep courses
Hyper selectivity can assuage poor SES and reduce class differences within an ethnic group
denies structural inequalities
What role can schools play in reducing racial inequality?
Zero sum doesn't exist
black students improved their scores; no change for white studentts
The promise of school choice
families get to choose to attend range of public school options beyond assigned neighborhood school
liberate mamraginalzied families stuck in low performance schools
stimulate competition between schools to attract enrollment -> spur more benefitss
What is race as an ideology?
Ideology: descriptive vocabulary of day to day existence through which people make sense of social reality that they live and create from day to day
language of consciousness that suits the way people del with others
Problem is not race
people seen as inferior when seen as oprerssed
assumed nature as ordained their social arraangements
race is embodiment of legitimating narrative about inequality
Where does race come from?
racial categories rarer outcomes of racist policies
racial identification process of being assigned racial position in the hierarchy
What did Racist Thought say?
segregationist: strict hierarchy justified by belief in fundamental racial difference
assimilationist: belief that racial disparities are caused by both discrimination and behavior of black people (black culture )
Inverse relationship: ignorance and hate are products of ideas that rationalize racist policies
CONCLUSION: discrimination upholds political and social orders racist ideas legitimate it
What Is the role of intentions in racial disparities
Racial disparities in hiring practices continue to exist
Despite Best Intention
students internally academically segregate
Reproduction of racial inequality
institutional practices and policies
lurking race-based beliefs
How has the way racism worked change?
subtle and implicit
unintentional but embedded in institutional processes and inherited "de facto" structural conditions
What Is colorblindness?
Race neutrality- popular response to race discussions
What are the characteristics?
access racial discrimination as wrong- all share humanity
Assumes best strategy is stop recognizing race and talking about it
Denies structural interventions by avoiding talking about race
What is it like in policy?
Focuses on individuals
acts as explicit interpersonal racism persecuted
solution to disparities is on individual
Results in continuation of racal hearchy
replies moral situations that are no longer endorsed by science or religion
How is it a policy paradigm?
suck on discourse on racist intentions
ignores need for collective solutions
Wha are systematic layers of racism
Note: all appear non racial and meritocratic
Operate along cultural belief systems
prime and save judgements
Where do we go from here?
true compassion more than flipping coin, it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring
white liberals are complict
developing normative moral argument for action
Dilemma for white America:
Haunting ambivalent to evils of slavery and continued effects on black community
no large scale effort to correct the damage that continues to be caused as a result of institutional racism m
political and economic hierrarhceis pattered by racial group membership
systematically institutional advantages for some groups and disadvantages for others
How do we make people makes sense of differences in contemporary arguments?
gaps in degree attainment
Whatt explains gaps in education?
violation family culture
What is the violation and family culture argument?
argues that cultural deprivation within groups explains children failing
assumes that system is meritocratic
What is race and the myth of meritocracy?
People use culture o explain asian model minority achievement
On asian American achievement: Hyperselectivity benefits all members of immigrants group
generate ethnic captital which manifests into ethnic institutions like SAT course
: hyper selectivity of immigrant group can assuage a child's poor SES an reduce class differences in an ethnic group
Produces stronger edcational outcomes than what would have been predicted based on parental SES
denies structural inequalities
ignores resource disparities
disguised as common sense
How is racism costly?
racial division undermines ability to address common neesd
Zero sum logic: predicated on group competition for finite set of privileges to be defended
How is racial segregation a problem?
Segregation undermines democracy and social cohesion
Brown V board
prevents interracial contact/empathy
Grounds: raciaal composition of neighborhood and school is systematically associated with adult outcocmes
fundamental cause of racial inequality between generations:
education; income; wealth; health; well-being;
What are the origins of segregation?
Great migration: AA form rural to large cities
protective racial covenants
white neighbors agreed not to sell home to black families
violence and intimidation
Redlining by HOLCC; explicit racial languages;
When did this change?
Protective covenants ruled unconstitutional
fair housing act of 1968- no more redlining
what were the challenges?
difficult to prove
cities not acoutnable
How is segregation remaining high today?
resources differences by racial group shape where people afford to live
discrimination in housing market and institutional rules make some plans inaccessible by racial group
Subprime lending during housing book targeted black homeowners who bore brunt of foreclosure
white avoidance of minority neighborhoods; segregated social networks influence knowledge and preferences about where to live
What role can schools play in racial desegregation?
What iei the central claim from children of the dream?
equalizing opportunity during era of desegregation produced dramatic positive effects
Could school choice address the problem ?
Families get to choose to attend from range of public school options beyond assigned school
Proposed benefits include
liberated mmmaginalied families stuck in poor performing schools
stimulate competition between schools to attract enrollmentt
spur schools to do better job
Quality of school depends on where students live
Zero sum logic: white student outcomes did not decline even was integration improved outcomes for black students
What are the gaps in school choice?
large black-white gaps in access to high achieving schools
School choice does
all gap explained by where white and black families live- residential segregation
families preferred even more racially segregated schools
Racist thought and policy
Policies that help inequalities
What hasn't worked?
family values / volition
type 1 solutions
McGhee's claim: ideology of races and zero sum thinking limit broad political support for structural reforms
Racist thought and public policy intervention
Problem: individual volition
only address intentionally bad actors
unintentional dissemination and disparate outcomes
invest and equalize outcomes