ASPIRE Ancient Egypt by Tessa and Quinn - Coggle Diagram
ASPIRE Ancient Egypt by Tessa and Quinn
people used pictures to communicate.
ancient Egyptians recorded ideas.
Hieroglyphs are part of a system of picture writing called hieroglyphics.
picture writing first began, the pictures represented the actual object they depicted
pictures came to represent ideas
if you saw a sun in a scene, it might symbolize not only the sun, but also daytime, warmth, or light. These were known as ideograms.
the pictures began to represent appearance of an object and related ideas, but also the sound of a spoken word
So each picture took on a unique sound that could be used to form thoughts and ideas.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were a combination of sound-signs, pictograms, and ideograms.
Egyptians invented a decimal system.
7 different symbols.
1 was represented by a single stroke.
10 was shown by drawing one hobble.
100 was shown with a drawing one coil of rope.
1,000 was represented by a drawing of one lotus plant.
10,000 was shown as one finger.
100,000 was represented by a drawing of one frog. (A hieroglyphic of six frogs in a row would mean 600,000)
1,000,000 was represented by the figure of a god with raised arms
the higher number is always written in front of the lower number
more than one row of numbers the reader should start at the top.
Building the Pyramids
the burial tomb of Pharoah Khufu (also known as Cheops) is known as the Great Pyramid,
considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,
The Great Pyramid is the only ancient wonder still standing today.
The Great Pyramid is over 450 feet tall
constructed of more than 2 million huge blocks, many of which weigh 3 tons or more
likely built in just 20 years.
The Great Pyramid was originally encased in shiny stones, making its surface very smooth and polished.
the sun reflecting off this surface could be seen hundreds of miles away
between 20,000 and 30,000 workers spent 80 years building the pyramids at Giza
not slaves [building], but a mixture of local residents and craftsmen
The workers lived in villages near the pyramid site.
The Afterlife & Weighing of the Heart
most ancient civilizations were afraid of their gods
Egyptians loved their gods
Almost everyone in ancient Egypt was afraid of Ammut!
The ancient Egyptians believed if you did something bad, your heart would be heavy,
the god Ammut could suddenly appear and gobble you up!
Ammut had a big part in the weighing of the heart ceremony.
ancient Egyptians believed you traveled to an afterlife, a heavenly place where you spent eternity.
To enter your afterlife, you had to have a light heart.
Light hearts were earned from a lifetime of doing good deeds.
your spirit had to enter the Hall of Maat.
if your heart was heavy because your deeds were dreadful, the god Ammut would suddenly appear ... and eat you up!
The god Thoth recorded the findings. (In ancient Egypt, everything was recorded and written down.)
If your heart was light, lighter than a feather, you passed the test
The Egyptians believed that the sun would die every night in the west and be reborn every morning in the east.
after they died they would be able to spend their afterlife in a paradise that resembled the delta
to reach the afterlife, Egyptians had to lead a good life and preserve the body.
Egyptians believed that every individual had a ka.
a spiritual twin of an individual, like a soul.
The ka would live forever in the afterlife.
The body had to be preserved so that the ka could live in the afterlife.
several steps involved in mummification.
completely dry the body to stop decomposition while maintaining a life-like appearance.
he or she was taken to a special embalming area. The body was first washed in an antiseptic salt solution.
The internal organs were removed and dried.
The brain was removed through the nose with a sharp instrument, such as a hook. The brain was not considered an important part of a person's personality.
The heart was the seat of intellect and emotion. The heart was kept in the body.
Some vital internal organs were kept in canopic jars (technical term for the type of container) and buried with the body.
The body was filled with sawdust or sand to keep its original shape.
body was then covered with natron salt to completely dry out the body.
then placed on a sloping table so that any excess fluid would drain away.
The remaining internal organs were left to dry.
Forty days later, the natron was removed and embalmers did their best to restore a life-like appearance to the individual.
rubbed oil and spices into the skin to make it supple.
body and face was further packed with linen,
Ears, nostrils, the mouth and eyes were sewn shut.
While the process was going on, a priest would read The Book of the Dead to help guide the deceased's soul through its judgment
The Creation Myth
the entire Earth was covered with dark, chaotic waters called nun.
a mound of earth emerged from the waters.
Upon this mound of earth was a lotus flower.
the first god, Ra, emerged
He created the other gods and human life. Ra became the sun god. He created Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture).
Shu and Tefnut had the children Geb (earth) and Nut (sky).
Geb and Nut had four children - Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys.
Ra was the most important god - the sun god.
He was depicted in many forms,
falcon-headed man with a sun disk on top of his head
a scarab beetle pushing a sun disk across the sky.
also shown as a human man.
Osiris was the god of the underworld.
Osiris was once the king of Egypt. He was a good king who ruled justly
Seth, the god of chaos, was jealous of Osiris' great achievements
Seth murdered Osiris, cut up Osiris' body and threw the pieces into the Nile.
Osiris' wife, Isis, and her sister Nephthys wandered all over Egypt collecting the pieces of Osiris
They gave him a burial and with the help of the gods Anubis, Ra and Thoth (god of learning and knowledge), Osiris was brought back to life and ruled the underworld as the king.
Horus, who later avenged his father's murder.
Osiris was a symbol of life, death and resurrection. He was associated with corn, the color green and the regeneration
Horus was a falcon god associated with the sun.
After Osiris became king of the underworld, Horus was protected by his mother Isis to stop Seth murdering him
he pursued Seth and took his revenge on him
The battle between Seth and Horus was long.
Horus's eye was gouged out and Seth was stabbed
Horus eventually defeated Seth, who was forced to live in the deserts.
This is why the deserts of ancient Egypt were associated with chaos and death.
When Horus lost his eye, the god Thoth healed it. Horus's eye became a symbol of healing and was used as an amulet to bring good health
Horus became the next king of Egypt.
Seth was the jealous brother of Osiris
He was sent to live in the deserts of Egypt which were associated with chaos.
Seth was not an evil god but was associated with destructive and wild forces of nature, such as wind, rains, lightning, thunder and storms.
Anubis was the jackal-headed god of embalming and mummification
He was identified with the jackal because in the western deserts where the Egyptians often buried their dead, jackals were seen roaming about.
the god presiding over the art of mummification and protecting the dead.
Other gods and goddesses in ancient Egypt included Thoth (learning), Khonsu (the moon), Sobek (water), Isis (wisdom and magic), and Hathor (love and fertility).
Black-charcoal, white-limestone, red-ochre, yellow-Iorn Oxide, Blue - Copper, Green - Malacite
Crafts were produced in small shops.
Their wares included linen textiles, pottery, bricks, tools, glass, weapons, furniture, jewelry, perfume, rope, baskets, mats and writing material
Egypt also had a substantial output of mineral products, like limestone, sandstone, granite; copper, gold, tin and gems.
Carvings of gods showed respect to the gods and the people who worshipped them.
Craftsmen usually worked for the wealthier people, but sometimes the villagers would trade crops for artwork.
A day in a life of a farmer
Wears coarse linen kilt and reed sandals
Life depends on the sun
After breakfast goes to work
Deliver the payment to the temple
Stop for lunch
Work all day in the heat
When sun sets they go home
Put kids to bed and go to bed with wife
Get pout of bed and wash, shave, and dress
Agriculture was the main economic activity
Main crops were wheat and barley, lettuce, beans, onions, figs, dates, ect
Flax was grown by many farmers, and then used for the production of linens
Good were exported to and imported from countries around the sea
Main exports from Egypt were gold and other minerals, wheat, barley, and papyrus sheets
Barley was an easy payment
Most famous trade expeditions was when Queen Hatshepsut sent one down the Red sea
Paid in crops, or crafts, pottery, clothes, etc…
The Nile River
water would flood the Nile
Flood left behind black rich fertile soil
Silt left behind
Spring water would run off the mountain to the river
Seen in ancient Egyptian art
Silt called The Gift of The Nile
Shaped like lotus flower
Without the Nile Egypt would be a desert
4000 miles long
Longest river in the world
Irrigation & Flooding
solved the problem of plants by digging canals
water went into canals and irrigated the land
it takes 20L of water to irrigate 1 square meter of land for 1 day
Plants after flood withered and died
Upper and lower Egypt
Both spoke different languages
worshiped the same gods
Upper and lower Egypt differ in many ways
No evidence that they were 2 separate countries
thought of the country as a union of The Two Lands
The Nile splits into several branches
forms a great V-shape called the Delta
Bordering the sea
Is a wetter and more fertile part of the country
Northern most part of the country
Papyrus grow here
Bordering on Nubia
It is the drier and more mountainous part
Southern part of the country
The desert comes to the river
Papyrus don't grow here
The highest class
Believed that their pharaohs were gods
trusted their rulers with many responsibilities
Protection was at the top of the list
The ruler leads the army in case of a foreign threat
Each farmer paid taxes in the form of grain
Viziers and scribes
Working with the Viziers were the scribes
Who kept government records
Ensured that taxes were collected
Mastered a rare skill in ancient Egypt
They could read and write
Vizier's was the pharaoh's chiefs minister or assistant
Right below the pharaoh were the nobles
only nobles could hold government posts
Profited from tributes paid to the pharaoh
Responsible for pleasing the gods
Get wealthy from donations to the gods
The middle class
Soldiers fought in wars or stopped uprisings inside the country
Supervised the peasants, farmers, and slaves building palaces or pyramids
Doctors and craftsmen made up the middle class
Made jewelry, pottery, tools, and other useful things
The lowest class
Farmers tended fields, raised animals, kept canals and reservoirs in good order…
Farmers paid taxes that could be as much as 60 percent of their yearly harvest
Slaves toiled at the discretion of the pharaoh or nobles
A small number of peasants and farmers leveled up in the social pyramid
Forced to work on building projects
Send sons to village to learn trade, to save money
Slaves and farmers
Schools run by priests or by artisans
Sons who learn to read and write became scribes
A day in a life of a woman
In a quiet home she can cook
Starts on the beer
After putting away the laundry, eats with kids
Starts on dinner
Eats dinner with family
Goes to bed at 6-7 o'clock
Leaves for the market
She sprinkles water and natron cleansing salts to keep insects away
Always watches the kids
Not wealthy but have a servant named Akana
wears a rough linen dress with an amulet
Kids look for some reeds
System of government
Revolved around one person- The Pharaoh
Believed to be the living God
Pharaoh had limitless power and control
The type of government in Ancient Egypt was Theocracy
Built upon rulers and regulations
Upper and Lower Egypt United
Wore the white crown of Upper Egypt and red crown of Lower Egypt
King Menes built a capital city at Memphis
Future rulers went by "King of Upper and Lower Egypt"
Menes founded the first dynasty or royal family
In 3100 B.C.E. the 2 kingdoms became 1
She took control of the throne
Expanded trade relations and built a number of impressive temples
Reign was cut short when she disappeared
Built the largest pyramid in Ancient Egypt
Good intelligence and political astuteness
The version of the goddess Isis
18 when he died
Small tomb compared to other Pharaohs
9 years old when he took the throne
The Belief in one God
Pushed his people toward a new religion
Most prolific of the pharaohs
Siring over 100 children with more than a dozen wives
Had power for 70 years
Well regarded as the builder of temples and statues than any other pharaoh
Greatest Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh