IT paper 2, The internet, - Coggle Diagram
IT paper 2
Holders of information
categories of information holders
Businesses - hold information on all of its employee, including D.O.B, address and financial information, allowing them to be paid at the end of the month.
Businesses also hold commercial info about their organisation - profits and losses, product descriptions, and historical data. Many companies may record information about their competitors and general marketing data.
Government - hold a huge amount of information about all citizens in the country, collecting financial earnings, tax paid, births and deaths.
A national census is taken every 10 years in the UK that records extensive data about everyone living in the country. The government also stores information about other countries. E.g, the foreign office posting travel advice.
Individual - individuals hold information about themselves, either in their head , on paper or electronically. This includes their name, date of birth, address, usernames and passwords.
can be used for a diverse range of purposes; advertising, reporting information, displaying images and online shopping
2 types of webpage: static webpage and dynamic webpage
static webpage: contain content that is pre built and remains the same each time the page is loaded - they are cheaper and easier to create and load quicker - using basic html. this can be changed by the site editor but will appear the same for everyone who has access.
dynamic webpage: generated when they are loaded and can appear different to different users - they are harder to code but can be linked to databases to allow them to show personalised content to whoever is viewing the site - written in server side languages like PHP. e.g: amazon homepage.
used to share information with like minded individuals; such as those who share beliefs or hobbies. Blogs can be used as a way of updating their customer base with what they have done or what they are working on - blogs can feature multimedia such as text, images, videos and links to other sites
people can share information with followers in text, image or video format.}
blogs and vlogs can unite people with similar interests, such as a cookery blog or a travel vlog.
takes a lot of effort and time to create posts, especially videos that need to be edited before posting. potential customers could be lost if blogs arent updated regularly.
building up a customer base can be difficult - post must be engaging, researched and correct.
a downloadable audio file, usually on a certain topic such as sports or gaming that can be listened to when convenient. usually provided by services such as spotify and apple music.
podcasts are not usually recorded live, so they can be edited and uploaded at a certain time each week
podcasts can be listened to whenever the user feels like it, so they cant miss it and can catch up when it is best for them
podcasts are growing more and more popular - so audience bases grow each year.
Podcasts take time to record and produce
it can take time to build up an audience directly from a podcast.
audio and video streaming
streaming is the process of receiving video / audio data in a continuous flow - allowing the user to access the video or audio immediately without having to wait for the file to download entirely
example: the bbc provide live radio streaming online, youtube allows people to stream videos and spotify allows people to stream music.
streaming doesnt require data to be downloaded entirely before use - users can watch / listen as soon as the connection starts
streaming is harder for users to share than downloading a file - netflix uses this as a form of piracy protection .
streaming requires high bandwidth so users may suffer perfomance issues on slower devices and networks
streaming requires a constant network connection compared to downloadable media which can be used when offline / outside.
coaxial cable: multiple layers of insulation, better protection against inteference than the twisted pair cable, more expensive than the twisted pair cable, cheaper than fibre optic, better bandwidth than twisted pair, less bandwidth than fibre optic, may be used for networking connections
Fibre Optic Cable: data is transferred through glass via light - immune to electromagnetic inteference, extremely high bandwidth, much more expensive than other cabling options, great for transmitting at long distances
Twisted pair cable: constructed of insulated copper wires, cheapest cabling option, significantly effected by inteference, low bandwidth
Types of information storage
Types of information Access and storage devices
Worldwide network of interconnected networks
public, open access
A network not connected to the internet and is only available to those within an organisation (like a business or school) - they hold information needed by those who are inside the organisation but isnt intended for wider distribution
Private, closed access
A website that provides restricted access to resources for an authorised set of users from outside the organisation
private, shared access
WWW is a way of accessing information, using protocols like HTTPS to view web pages
Accessibility of WWW information formats
Advantages of holding data globally
Disadvantages of holding data globally
1.1 Holders of information
PHIR hold information of customers, transactions, logistics and information
PHIR operates in the UK, developed country, meaning advanced technological infrastructure - can be contrasted with technology and access issues in developing countries in the context of removal services
1.2 types of information storage media
PHIR likely uses different storage media: physical (paper) for packing lists, digital media for customer databases, optical media for data backups. Each type has both pros and cons regarding reliability, speed and storage capacity
1.3 - information access and storage devices
PHIR may use handheld devices for communication and data entry, portable devices for mobile office work and fixed devices for office work, shared devices for storing and accessing customer data.
1.4 / 1.5 The internet / www tech
Online services like website and quote request and an example of the internet and WWW technologies in use - shows importance of network characteristics like speed and reliability.
1.6 Information formats and 1.7/1.8 advantages and disadvantages
PHIRs website may include different formats like webpages, blogs, videos etc. This gives a wide range of accessibility, brings advantage of speed of communication and disadvantages like security risks.
2.1 information styles and their uses
Text for communication and records, graphics like logos, videos for promo content, audio for customer support and numerical data for shipments.
2.2 information classification
PHIR handles sensitive, private, and business information such as customer details and transaction data - the classification impacts how the information is managed and protected
2.3 quality of information / 2.4 information management
Managing customer data is important as the quality of information is crucial for PHIR in tasks like creating quotes and tracking shipments. Good info management is essential.
Data vs information: Data refers to unprocessed facts or statistics that have no context.,
Information refers to data that has been processed, organised and structured into context
Education and Training
Management information systems
marketing promotion and sales
financial analysis and modelling
internal and external communication
Stages of data analysis
1) identify the need
before anything else takes place, objectives are set for what the data analysis will hope to achieve
aims need to be clear and well defined
e.g, an organisation should define what information will be needed and what exactly they want to find out by the end of the process
2) define the scope
in this stage, the restrictions of the project are defined
scope includes factors such as budget, content, detail, timescales and any further constraints
3) identify potential sources
project planners must identify a wide range of sources for the potential information, ensuring that it is unbiased and covers the objectives
specific data will depend on the project, but it could include sales figures / customer surveys for example
4) source and select information
Information is gathered from the identified sources in stage three.
any suitable data is excluded so that results are not unreliable as poor quality information can lead to numerous negative consequences. Planners will have to determine the accuracy and reliability of any identified sources and select the best
5) select appropriate tools
there are many different data analysis tools that can be used as part of this sequence. In this stage, the most appropriate tool for the project is selected.
Examples may include charts and graphs for visual representation of data
regression analysis - regression is the determining of relationships. e.g if the amount spent on advertising bottled water increases, will consumption increase too?
trend analysis is another option, showing patterns over time
6) process and analyse data
Data has now been collected and can be inputted into software such as spreadsheets or databases to further analyze
putting collected data into a spreadsheet for example allows for analysis to begin as graphics can be created from the data and any patterns or trends discovered
7) record and store information
The data has now been collected and analysed and now any findings are written into a report. Any patterns, trends or findings can be described with statistical evidence generated from the analysis
8) share results
A report is worthless if not shared with stakeholders
Sharing can take different forms, such as a typed document posted out to stakeholders, an email with major findings summarized or as a post on a website.
data analysis tools
A well structured database uses seperate data tables for different types of information - they can show patterns of information
visualisation of data
Helps people understand the significance of the data by putting it into a visual context
trend and pattern identification
similar to visualisation of data - uses a comparison line graph to analyse sales over a period of time
the process of improving or removing out of date data.
geographic information system / location mapping
The internet is a global network of interconnected networks
The WWW is not the same as the internet, it is a way of accessing information and using protocols such as HTTPS to view webpages
3 types of www technologies
A global network of interconnected networks - typically public and allow users to have public access.
Examples: accessing web pages to shop and watch videos
A private network only available to authorised members - typically only have closed access.
Used typically in schools and businesses
A private network that is accessible using the internet but only allows access to authorised users - meaning users have shared access.
Speed - refers to how quickly data can be accessed - for example the extranet is the slowest network to use because it must be accessed through the internet first.
Security - relates to how likely the data will be kept secure. an intranet is more secure than the internet because only authorised users can log in.
Access Levels - or permissions, can refer to who can see what in terms of data and files - resources on an intranet can be set so that only certain users can view them.
Accessibility - relates to how available the data is. For example, the internet can be accessed on any network enabled device at any time.
information styles and uses
the simplest way to store information. different character sets may be used
an image that moves and changes - offering an advantage over video as they can include step by step instructions as well as text. individual scenes may be shown for longer on the animated graphic than they would on video so that the full process can be seen.
tables / spreadsheets
charts and graphs
Information that should be protected from being see, could harm the safety or the privacy of an organisation or an idividual
example: medical data, financial data
non sensitive information
Information that can be released publicly with no fear of negative consequence
E.g: store information such as shop addresses, opening times, and the names of senior messages
product information including prices, online reviews and general available
Relates to an individual and should not be shared with anyone else without the data subjects permission, private information is protected by the data protection act and would need to be stored securely so it can't be accessed without authorisation
eg home addresses, contact information, birth dates and banking details as well as employee data like linked bank accounts and addresses
Released to the public and therefore can be seen by anyone - non sensitive
E.g Social media usernames and shared images, public business information, government reports like the consensus
Data about a specific individual
data about a specific business, could be public or private
example: address of headquarters, financial data or employee details, annual sales figures
private data that is more restricted than sensitive data, access is limited to only those who need to know
e.g: doctor notes, business profits and losses, trade secrets
information that is highly sensitive, stored by a government institution, requiring the highest levels of restricted access. usually restricted by law and only viewable by authorised individuals or groups. in the uk there are three types of classified information: official, secret, top secret
examples: military data, terrorism precautions, crime scene reports
removes personally identifiable data from information so that an individual cannot be identified. allows the information to be used in wider context without running the risk of legal action.
Examples: partially anonymised infromation: where some of the personal information has been removed and replaces by a symbol, completely anonymised information is there all identifiable data has been expunged
quality of information
valid information: information that is up to date and complete, fits its purpose. e.g, detailed end of year financial data in the form of graphs.
biased information: correct but only presents a one sided view. e.g, end of year financial data that only focuses on profits and not on losses
Reliable information: information from a source that can be verified and confirmed to be correct.
relevant information: should be appropriate for the required purpose. irrelevant information may get in the way of correct decision making
accurate information: information should be carefully selected and entirely correct, inaccurate information can lead to unwanted consequences such as higher costs and missed deadlines
the quality of information that an organisation uses will have a significant impact on further processes and decisions
good quality information that is accurate, valid, or reliable can lead to better strategic decisions, meeting deadlines and innovation
positive effects: informed decisions, higher chance of success, better innovation, strategic planning decisions, projects will stay within budget, projects completed on time
Poor quality information that is biased, inaccurate or out of date may lead to negative consequences such as loss of customer trust, fines, and legal challenges
misinformed decisions, not responding to customers needs, inaccurate delivery time, customers unhappy, opportunities missed, loss of customers, fall in profits, projects take longer, not a lot of money in budget
Management information system (MIS)
used to store, collect, analyze and present data for an organisation
processes a large amount of data and organises it (such as in databases) so it can be used for decision making and general data analysis
can be used to displace financial status of an organisation, highlight areas for improvement and generate sales forecasts based on current data
a bank could use an MIS for looking at the number of customers that visit each branch, forecasting takings based on historical data, profiling customers, identifying customers who havent saved recently to target them for email
benefits of an mis
integrated system: shares a large amount of data from multiple departments within an organization to produce accurate reports - financial data can be used to generate accurate pay slips
decision making: an mis can be used to inform an organisations decision making by highlighting areas that need improvement within the company
powerful analysis: an mis will use large data sets to provide accurate data analysis that can be used in many different ways by an organisation: trends and patterns can be identified easily
backup capabiltiies: data can be stored centrally and backed up easily
Disadvantages of an MIS
Cost and installation: MIS are expensive and need to be professionally set up and requires technical knowledge to maintain
requires accurate data, so any incorrect or out of data will mean that analysis will consequently be inaccurate. Potentially disastrous decisions could be made as a result of incorrect data
training: employees will need to be trained to use the software accurately for maximum efficiency
Information can be collected in different ways: eg, paper forms, surveys, stocktaking, data capture forms
data must be stored in a secure and easily retreivable medium, it could be paper, magnetic, optical or cloud storage. Data is most conveniently stored in a database so that information can be added, removed or updated when necessary
Using a database to store information allows users to easily access data so that it can be updated or removed, searches and queries can be performed on all tables in a database to show specific values using certain criteria
Manipulating and processing
after collection and storage, data must be processed so that it is ready for the final stage =- analysis. data can be exported to other software, such as from a database and into a spreadsheet so that it can be manipulated, sorted and visualised. Graphs and charts can be created on data in a spreadsheet so that patterns and trends are easier to identify.
To analyse the data is to see what can be learned from it so important decisions can be made
sources and data types
level 0 dfd's
sometimes called context diagrams and show a data system in little detail, but still allow the user to get an idea of how data flows through a system
level 1 dfds
dfds that focus on one system and are in more detail than a level 0 dfd
connectivity rules for drawing lvl 1 dfds
atleast one input / output for each external entity
data only flows in one direction
every data flow is labelled
every data flow connects to at least one process
atleast one input/ output data flow for each process
sources of the data that is input into a system and those to whom data that is output sent and who are also external to the system itself.
ways in which the data in the system is collated - for example there would be one central process which would collate the scores and comments made by individual tutors into one overall report for each student.
represent any real world store of data held in the system - this could be a computerised database, but could also be an inbox on someones desk
the flows of data between entities and processes
impacts affecting the flow of information in information systems
Copper Cables - Cheaper kind of wired internet connection, that can be poorly insulated and therefore susceptible to electromagnetic interference. Copper Cables are more likely to suffer from attenuation and have a lower bandwidth
Fibre Optic Cables are very fast but an expensive type of wired connection. Signals are transmitted as waves of light through a glass tube. As a result, fibre optic cables are not affected by electromagnetic interference and suffer less from attenuation. They also have a higher bandwidth.
brief history: 1960s: development of the arpanet, the first version of the modern internet
1980s: development of the TCP/IP protocol suit, enabling diverse computer networks to interconnect and communicate
1990s: advent of the world wide web by sir tim berners-lee - making the internet more accessible to the public
uses both wired and wireless communication infrastructures including fibre optic cables, satellite links and cellular networks
Key services: WWW, Email, FTP
Bluetooth: a temporary short range wireless communication that reaches devices within a limit of 10 metres, it can be used to transfer audio files from one smartphone to another
Microwave: Use radiowaves to send signals across a large area via microwave towers, can transmit a large amount of data but antennas must be in the line of sight of eachother with no obstructions - affected by bad weather, higher chances of attenuation
Satellite: point to multipoint communication by using satellites above the earths atmosphere that receive a transmission and rebroadcast them back to earth - however the distance means that there is a big delay between data transmission and it being received
GSM / 5G - (global system for mobile communications) is a technology that allows mobile phones to connect to a network for calls and texts.