Imperial Presidents - Alexis Lee, - Coggle Diagram
Imperial Presidents - Alexis Lee
William McKinley (1896-1901)
The Spanish-American War in 1898 was a significant event in McKinley's foreign policy. The United States supported Cuban rebels in their fight for independence from Spanish colonial rule, eventually leading to U.S. involvement in the conflict and the Treaty of Paris, which ceded control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
The annexation of Hawaii occurred in 1898 under McKinley's administration. Hawaii was a valuable acquisition due to its strategic location in the Pacific and its potential for a naval base.
After the Spanish-American War, the United States acquired the Philippines from Spain. McKinley was initially hesitant about keeping the Philippines but ultimately decided to do so. This led to the Philippine-American War as Filipinos sought independence, which continued into the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
Guam and Puerto Rico were also acquired from Spain as a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1898. They became unincorporated territories of the United States.
McKinley's administration pursued policies to expand American trade globally, particularly in Asia and Latin America. This was seen as a way to promote American economic interests abroad.
His foreign policy was primarily characterized by imperialism and expansionism. While he did not have a specific doctrine or name for his foreign policy, it was largely influenced by the circumstances and events of his time.
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1908)
26th President of the United States, is best known for his foreign policy approach, which is often referred to as the "Roosevelt Corollary" to the Monroe Doctrine
primarily aimed at establishing American dominance and influence in the Western Hemisphere and beyond
One of the most famous instances of Roosevelt's foreign policy in action was his involvement in the creation of the independent nation of Panama. The United States supported Panama's separation from Colombia and the construction of the Panama Canal. The canal was of strategic importance for U.S. interests and global trade.
Roosevelt played a key role in mediating the end of the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. His efforts helped secure a peace treaty between the two nations, for which he received the Nobel Peace Prize.
Dominican republic and Cuba
Roosevelt implemented the Roosevelt Corollary in various instances, including interventions in the Dominican Republic and Cuba to ensure political and economic stability.
While the U.S. had acquired the Philippines as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Roosevelt's administration continued to deal with the Philippine-American War as Filipinos sought independence from American rule.
Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy was characterized by a strong and assertive approach to protecting American interests, both within the Western Hemisphere and on the global stage. His legacy in foreign policy includes the notion of the United States as a dominant world power that would assert itself in the affairs of nations in its sphere of influence.
William Howard Taft (1909-1912)
27th President of the United States did not have a specific foreign policy doctrine named after him as some other presidents did. However, his administration's foreign policy was largely characterized by dollar diplomacy.
"Dollar Diplomacy" is the term commonly associated with Taft's foreign policy.
Taft's foreign policy aimed to promote and protect American economic interests abroad, particularly in Latin America and Asia. This policy was driven by the belief that the United States could expand its influence by supporting American businesses overseas.
Dollar diplomacy involved using American financial power to influence and stabilize foreign governments. Taft's administration encouraged American banks to invest in and loan money to foreign countries, especially in Latin America, as a means to help them manage their debt and promote economic stability.
The goal was to foster political stability in countries where U.S. economic interests were at stake. By helping nations manage their finances and infrastructure development, the United States aimed to create favorable conditions for American businesses to operate
One of the most prominent examples of Taft's dollar diplomacy was in Nicaragua. The United States became heavily involved in Nicaraguan affairs, providing loans and military support to stabilize the country. This led to the establishment of a pro-American government under the leadership of Adolfo Díaz.
A similar approach was taken in Honduras, with American banks providing loans and financial support to the Honduran government in return for influence over its economic policies.
Taft's administration was also involved in efforts to maintain open access to China's markets. While it did not directly intervene in the way that Roosevelt did, the United States continued to advocate for the Open Door Policy in China.
Taft's administration continued to manage the Philippines, which had been acquired during the Spanish-American War. Efforts were made to improve infrastructure and governance in the islands.
Woodrow Wilson (1913-1920)
Promotion of Democracy: Wilson's foreign policy was characterized by his strong belief in the promotion of democracy and self-determination. He believed that nations should be able to determine their own political systems and that the United States should support democratic movements worldwide.
Internationalism: Wilson was a proponent of international cooperation and the establishment of institutions that could prevent future conflicts. He played a key role in the formation of the League of Nations, an international organization designed to promote peace and collective security.
Peace: Wilson's foreign policy goals included the prevention of future world wars. He believed that diplomacy, negotiation, and international agreements were the best means of achieving lasting peace.
28th President of the United States, is best known for his foreign policy approach, which was often referred to as "Wilsonianism" or "Wilsonian diplomacy." His foreign policy goals were heavily influenced by his vision of promoting democracy, self-determination, and international cooperation.
Wilson's foreign policy is often associated with "Wilsonianism" or "Wilsonian diplomacy."
World War 1
The major foreign policy challenge of Wilson's presidency was the outbreak of World War I. At first, he maintained a policy of neutrality but later decided to enter the war alongside the Allied Powers. Wilson presented his Fourteen Points, which outlined his vision for a post-war world, including principles like self-determination, free trade, and the creation of the League of Nations.
Treaty of Versailles
After World War I, Wilson was a key figure in the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, which formally ended the war and established the League of Nations. However, the U.S. Senate did not ratify the treaty, and the United States did not join the League.
The United States was involved in a series of conflicts with Mexico during Wilson's presidency. The most significant was the U.S. intervention in the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) due to concerns about American citizens' safety and property in Mexico. U.S. forces occupied the Mexican port city of Veracruz in 1914.
Wilson's administration continued the American presence and governance in the Philippines, which had been acquired during the Spanish-American War.
Wilson implemented a policy known as the "Dollar Diplomacy," which aimed to stabilize economies and promote American interests in countries like the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua.