How do cells process the information essential for life? - Coggle Diagram
How do cells process the information essential for life?
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells are cells where they do not contain a nucleus or any organelles and are simple and unicellular. They are also smaller than eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells are much more complex and do contain a nucleus and organelles bound by plasma membranes. They are multicellular and are much larger than prokaryotic cells.
Both do contain ribosomes, DNA, and cytoplasm.
Patterns in Bio-molecules
There are four main macromoleules and they are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates.
Carbohydrate macro molecules are quick energy for the cells and are called saccharine carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are all found in carbohydrates. The carbohydrate bonds are also called glycosidic bonds
Protein Macro-molecules are made up of amino acids and when amino acids are joined they create a peptide bond. Proteins are the workers of the cell they serve functions like transporting molecules and help build components.
Lipid macro molecules are also known as fats and they store long term energy these bonds are called ester bonds. Lipids help also with cell signaling. A Triglyceride is formed when three fatty acids bond with one glycerol molecule. and it would be formed to transport fatty acids. It would be broken down to get energy from fat.
Nucleotide and nucleotide macro molecules . These bonds are called phosphodiesterase in DNA . All nucleotide have three parts-nitrogenous base, a phosphate group and pentose sugar. Nucleotide build DNA and RNA both if these molecules store information that is converted into proteins. The two main functions of nucleotides is to transfer and convert energy. Have nucleic acids
DNA vs RNA
DNA is double stranded and has a base pair it is also a more durable molecule that contains genetic code for all proteins and can be passed down to offspring
RNA is single stranded and has a single nucleobase it is less durable but carries a copy of DNA code to the ribosomes where the proteins are made.
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
Dehydration synthesis(Anabolic reaction) is when molecules are bonding due to water being removed from the bond and the monomers turn into polymers.
Hydrolysis (Catabolic reaction) breaks down the molecules by adding water to the bond and the polymer becoming multiple monomers.
How are Bio-molecules made?
Are proteins that speed up reaction by lowering activation energy.
The active site is the area of the enzyme where the substrate binds using weak bonds or hydrogen bonds. Then the substrate is broken down into products. The shape of the enzyme is only specific for its substrate. Then the bonds are broken and new ones are made
Factors that can affect enzymes
Optimal temperature- this is the range an enzyme can function
Denaturation- this can occur when the temperature is too high causing irreversible damage to the active site.
The optimal ph- this is the range which an enzyme can function in humans usually 6-8. In this cause if the ph goes back to normal so can the active site from its denatured state.
From the pineapple lab animal collagen can be broken down by bromelain