Imperial Presidents , , , - Coggle Diagram
William McKinley (1896 - 1901)
Spanish - American War
McKinley initially tried to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the conflict but eventually asked Congress for a declaration of war against Spain. Congress agreed, and the war began in April 1898.
Imperialism and Expansionism
supported the idea of American imperialism, believing that it was the nation's duty to bring its values and civilization to other parts of the world
Involvement with China, Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines
Open Door Policy
McKinley's administration supported the Open Door Policy in China, advocating for equal trading rights for all nations and opposing the colonization of China. This policy aimed to ensure American access to Chinese markets and prevent any one foreign power from dominating trade in China.
McKinley's administration declared war on Spain in 1898 due to Spain's harsh colonial rule in Cuba. The conflict, known as the Spanish-American War, resulted in the United States defeating Spain. The war was significant in the context of Cuba's struggle for independence from Spanish rule.
As part of the Treaty of Paris in 1898, which ended the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded Puerto Rico to the United States. Puerto Rico became an unincorporated territory of the U.S., leading to American military and economic presence on the island.
Theodore Roosevelt (1901 - 1908)
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt's foreign policy was characterized by the motto "speak softly and carry a big stick." He believed in negotiating peacefully but also maintaining a strong military to back up diplomatic efforts. This policy was demonstrated in his involvement in the construction of the Panama Canal and his handling of international crises.
Roosevelt played a significant role in the construction of the Panama Canal, a major engineering feat that connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enhancing global trade and military mobility.
Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, asserting America's right to intervene in Latin American countries to maintain economic and political stability. This policy had a lasting impact on U.S. relations with Latin America.
William Howard Taft (1909 - 1912)
Taft's administration implemented a foreign policy known as "Dollar Diplomacy." This policy aimed to use American economic influence to expand American investments and business interests abroad, particularly in Latin America and Asia. The idea was to promote stability and American interests in foreign countries through economic rather than military means.
Economic Foreign Policy
Dollar Diplomacy was Taft's approach to foreign policy, emphasizing the use of American economic power to promote stability and American interests abroad
Avoiding Military Intervention
Taft aimed to prevent military interventions in foreign nations by using economic influence to establish American dominance and promote economic stability.
16th Amendment and Income Tax
Under Taft's presidency, the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, granting Congress the power to levy income taxes. This laid the groundwork for the modern federal income tax system.
Expansion of National Parks
Taft significantly expanded the national parks system, adding land to national parks and establishing new ones. He focused on conserving natural resources and preserving America's natural beauty for future generations.
Woodrow Wilson (1913 - 1920)
Federal Reserve System
Wilson signed the Federal Reserve Act into law in 1913, creating the Federal Reserve System. This established a central banking system in the United States, providing more stable monetary and financial conditions.
Wilson continued efforts to regulate big businesses, signing the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914, which strengthened antitrust laws and prohibited anticompetitive practices. He also established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforce antitrust laws and prevent unfair business practices.
Wilson supported pro-labor reforms, including the Adamson Act of 1916, which established an eight-hour workday for railroad workers.