MUSICAL GENRE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL - Coggle Diagram
MUSICAL GENRE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL
To what extent is focus and concentration levels impacted by music?
How does music impact performance in test/examinations conditions?
The influence of music on arousal across a range of ages?
RESEARCH DESIGN TYPE
Conduct an experiment where the participants are split into different groups with the similar music preferences. Music will be played for the participants to listen. Participants will then be asked to self-report back their feelings after listening.
Allows researchers high levels of control and is able to demonstrate a clear cause and effect however results may be inaccurate due to the false setting and situations experiments are conducted in.
Can be carried out by selecting a group of people who are exposed to certain external stimuli and a group of people who are not. They could then be asked to record their heart rate and arousal levels afterwards.
Easiest design type to conduct and provides more accurate results since data is obtained through observation however it is open to biases and expensive to conduct multiple times.
Done by selecting a focus group of people who are exposed to a certain external stimulus, they would then be asked whether they believe the stimuli affects the heart rate and arousal levels and whether it affects them personally.
Provides a more flexible approach, the data gathered would be more detailed and broad; however as the data gathered may be broad, it will be hard to draw conclusions and the data is highly subjective to the participant.
Change in music genre
Different music genre has been found and proven by studies to have different effects on heart rate
Different genres can elicit different emotions
Difference in genre preference
Changes in heart rate could be influenced by the individual’s preference for music
Subjective as everyone's taste is different and may not fit in a certain genre
Heart rate after experiment
Comparison of baseline heart rate to heart rate after listening to music
Change in arousal levels
Comparison of self-reported arousal levels before and after experiment
Responses on questionnaires and rating scale
Comparison of self-reported scores before and after
The participant’s preference for music may affect their heart rate, if the participant likes none of the genres then they are forced to pick what they prefer and their heart rate may stay constant
Mood before experiment
The participant’s mood beforehand can impact their heart rate, if they were in a down mood then it may be harder to raise their heart rate
The quality of music can affect the heart rate, lower quality may be harder to raise the heart rate, and higher quality may be more efficient in raising
When comparing data with other classes, the classroom state may affect the baseline heart rate, eg. the weather, outside noise, people they are sitting next to, etc.
Everyone will be listening to the same music/track to ensure control
The testing method should remain constant throughout all classes to ensure control
A sample of 150 adolescents aged 13-70 years old of varied cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds and a balanced gender split.
Large diversity in age, can skew results
Potential for bias
Difference in assumed knowledge
A sample of 30 adolescents aged 13-18 years old, preferably high school students with a knowledge of psychology
Need guardian consent as all are underaged and can not legally agree to partake
Adolescence is a hard time as they are going through many changes
May not be an accurate representation of all
Too small of a sample leads to low statistics
All participants chose to participate without any pressure or coercion. The sample size is adolescents meaning they are vulnerable to adults taking advantage of them.
Students had the choice to either agree or disagree to partake in the experiment so they did not feel forced to partake if they did not wish to
All participants receive and understand all the information they need to decide whether they want to participate. Adolescents will need informed consent from parents or guardians as they cannot give informed consent on their own.
Consent forms were sent out to the students outlining what would take place in the experiment to avoid any misconceptions
Right to withdraw
All participants are informed that they have the right to withdraw from the study at any time. Some participants may feel pressured into continuing with the study or they may feel embarrassed due to their results.
Students were given the chance to walk out at any time during the experiment if they decide to change them mind
All participants have a right to privacy, their personal data should not be shared around without their knowledge or consent. If confidentiality is not allowed then the participants must be informed of the risks involved.
Unique identifiers were used instead of the student's names, to identify them. These identifiers were only known to them.
Deception was not used at all during the experiment and all students knew what was going to happen in the experiment and what their data will be used for
AREAS OF INTEREST
Effects of arousal levels on other autonomy systems
Influence of other stimuli on heart rate
Relationship between different genders and arousal
Impact of listening to music in different languages' effect on heart rate