Chapter 12: Motivation - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 12: Motivation
Motivation what it is?:
- Any influence, either within or external, to a person that triggers, directs or maintains goal-directed behaviour.
- Plays a role in retaining talented employees as well as encouraging them to perform optimally.
- managers need to know what motivates themselves as well as others, in order to inspire and implement strats:
Thus managers need to engage employees and communicate about:
- Indie needs and well-being
- The role and value of people to the org
- Jobs and where they fit, and how they contribute to the org
- Goals and performance expectations
- Consequences of behaviour
- Change in org
Managers need to use:
- be aware of and sensitive to people and their wellbeing
- Plan and implement initiatives to motivate employees
- Bring people into teams as a source of motivation, and ensure that teams are motivated, including virtual teams.
- Taking strategic action to making use behaviour of each employee to the strat needs of the org.
- Keep inconsideration of the initiatives to motivate employees across cultures and nations.
- what motivates employees.
- The understanding motivation allows managers to influences people actions and entice them to stay longer
- " decide on what strategies to implement to influence behaviour in line with the orgs goals
- managers require insight and understanding to help the design and implement appropriate motivation strats
Overview of motivation theories, 4 general theories;
- Individual differences - Deals the motivation as a characteristics of indies, which varies from different indies. be it higher salaries or a stable job.
Managers use these theories to drive behaviour of indies and max their performance.
- Effective managers understand the individual differences that shape each employee's unique view of work and use this understanding to max motivation
- Job and org contexts - how the job and org culture affects employees motivation, these theories address the are employees willing to make a safe, sustainable environment where everyone is treated equally, and work to their full potential, and given equal opportunities.
- The specific characteristics of a job determine to what degree employees find the work to be meaningful as well as the HRM policies, procedures and practices.
- Managerial behaviours - how the use of goals and rewards affect motivation. Addresses how managers can use remunerations to improve motivation of peoples.
- Managers motivate employees directly through more personal, one-to-one communication, including recognition.
- Integrated views of motivation - looks at the entire motivation process, and how several motivational factors or influencers combine to influence motivation and performance, and how to design a effective performance management system.
(4)Theories on motivation;
Need theories are 1 and 2 process are 3 and 4, what are they, Needs theories are when managers have to be aware of and satisfy needs of indies
Process theories; managers need to understand the process of motivation and know how to do influences the choices an indie makes in process
- Theories about individual differences(3) this is needed to explain what motivates people.
- Maslow's( Physiological, Security, Affiliation, Esteem, Self-Actualisation).
- Alderfer's ERG theory
- McClelland's theory of learnt needs
looks at motivations from a needs perspective, and that they are 3 categories, Existences, Relatedness and Growth needs.
- Frustration- regression, when indies are frustrated with higher level needs so their lower needs start to emerge, for example, being trained for supervisor then not getting the job as it isn't available.
The desire to establish and main interpersonal relationships with others.
desire for material and physical well-being, satisfied with food, water, air, shelter work and pay.
these are desires to be creative to make useful and productive contributions, and to have opportunities for personal development, this aspect is what the org tries to appeal to, by offering development opportunites.
McClelland's theory of learnt needs(3);
the acquired needs through interaction of their social environments being work, home, family and friends.
- Belief is needs that determine a persons behaviour are motives
Achievement; the desire to to succeed relative to some standard of of excellence or competitive situation.
- People who seek this tend to take personal responsibilities, to seek instant feedback and feel accomplished with progress
a persons desire to develop and maintain close, mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships with others.
- People seeking this tend to seek approval, reassurance from others, to be accepted and to conform to group norms, affects willing to work in teams.
Power motive; is indies desire to have influence and control over others as well as their social environment, the power motive is expressed in 2 ways
- personal power, asserting dominance, managers should try to allow indies to lead
- Social Power, indies use their power to solve org problems and help the org reach its goals. The indies can gather and motivate people to work towards the org goal.
- Job and org context as motivators theories(3); view the job and org context as an important determinant of behaviour:
- Herzberg's 2-factor theory
- Hackman and Oldham's job enrichment theory
- Equity theory.
Herzberg's 2 factor theory;
- Motivator factors, often referred to as intrinsic or intangible factors, are aspects of the job and org contexts that, when present, create positive feelings of satisfaction within indies.
- Hygiene factors, the extrinsic/tangible factors are the non-task characteristics of the work environment, that if absent, create 'dissatisfaction' and if present and accepted, create 'no dissatisfaction'
Job enrichment, how employees feel about how theyve worked and how much they earned.
Key job characteristics, the objectives apects of the job that can be changed to improve the crucial physchological state;
- Experienced meaningfulness, whether employees perceive their work as valuable.
- Experienced responsibility, if employees feel personally responsible for the quality and quantity of work.
- Knowledge of results: this refers to the extent to which employees receive feedback about how well they are doing, be it colleagues or customers
Key job characteristics;
- Skill variety; the degree to which the job involves many different work activities or requires several skills and talents
- Task id: evident when completion is idable in a piece of work. sneaker designer(high lvl) sneaker customizer(low lvl).
- Task significance; Occurs when the job has a substantial impact on the goals or work of others in the org. unless the job is done nothing gets done
- Autonomy; Happens the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the indie in scheduling work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying out tasks.
lecturer's structuring their module based on their desired out come
- Feedback; happens when work results give the employee the direct and clear info about their performance.
Growth need strength; a desire for personal challenges, a sense of accomplishment, and learning. objective is to create jobs the enjoy doing.
- internal equity - Fairness of what is paid for one job in the org, compared to that of other jobs
- External equity - fairness of the orgs pay in comparison to the payments made to similar jobs outside the org.
6 ways to reduce feelings of inequity:
- Increase their inputs to justify higher rewards, when they feel over rewarded.
- Decrease their inputs if the feel undercompensated
- Change the compensation they recieve through legal or other actions, i.e. forming a union, leaving work early
- Modify their comparisons by choosing other people with whom to compare themselves.
- Distort realities by rationalising that inequities are justified(gaslight)
- leave their situation(resign if they don't see progress)
- Managers Behaviours theory(2);
orgs need to remunerate, fairly, responsibly and transparently, to promote the achievement of strat objectives and positive outcomes in short-long term(King IV report).
- Reinforcement theory
- Goal setting
- stats that manages can direct performance of their employees by assigning specific, challenging goals that employees accept and to which they are willing to commit
- Such goal increase and direct the effort that indies exert in the workplace.
- Managers, however, need to ensure that these goals are aligned with the strategic goals of the org to ensure that indie employee behaviour is directed in line with the strat requirements of the org.
- An integrated view of motivation(2) , suggests people choose among alternative behaviours by considering which behaviour will lead to the more desired outcomes for them.
Integrated expectancy model;
can be rewarded intrinsically or extrinsically
- the model suggests that employees who perform well will feel satisfied in the rewards the receive.
- Employees exert effort if it leads to increase reward, of something they value.
- role perceptions, what employees think is necessary to do the job, what they think is required of the job and how they behaviour is affected by their interactions with co-workers, customers and supervisors.
Basic Expectancy theory;
- The basis for the integrated view of motivation.
- It suggest that people choose among alternative behaviours by considering which behaviour will lead to the more desired outcomes for them
- combines ideas of reinforcement and goal-setting
- people tend to choose behaviour that they believe will help them achieve their goals and avoid behaviour that they believe will lead to undesirable consequences.
When making behavioural choices, employees normally consider 3 questions;
- Expectancy; if the effort is made, will it allow one to perform the intended behaviour(progressive overloading)
- Instrumentality question; if behave accordingly, what will be the outcome, being useful in order to attain desired outcomes.
- Valence; how much do i value the outcome associated with the intended behaviour. the importance the employee attaches to the outcome.