FORENSICS- biological expnanations for offending behaviour. - Coggle…
FORENSICS- biological expnanations for offending behaviour.
NEGATIVE- example of scientific racism. claimed features like dark skin identify criminality. influenced racist policies of eugenics and biased IQ testing that harmed black communities. ultimately lowered trust in psychology as a science and the objectivity of criminal research
NEGATIVE- self fulfilling prophecy
NEGATIVE- he used careful scientific measurements but didnt use a control group so the bio features couldve been present in the whole population
POSITIVE- work was conducted with careful measurements which paved the way for more scientific approaches into criminal research. rejects free will in favour of biological determinism meant causes outside criminals control cpuld be considered in the justice system, helping arguments for less severe punishment
he used careful biological measurements of over 4000 living and dead criminals to back up atavistic form
said fifferent types pf criminals can be identified by different features. thieves= upturned nose, murderers= hooked nose
physically and mentally less evolved= degeneration. physical differences= odd sized ears, heavy brow, large jaws
atavistic form= criminals were genetically at a more primitive stage of human evolution. this means criminality is innate- theyre born, not made.
historical approach- older explanations of criminality were usually religious- suggesting they were possessed by demons. Lombrosso challenged these ideas.
suggested that some genes obly express due to an ingeraction with the environment. diathesis stress model. bio vulnerability then child neglect potential.
POSITIVE- 51 twin adoption studies in a large meta-analysis including over 100k Ps. research assessed the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on anti-social behaviour. the results of the data analysis found that genetics acounted for a 41% variance in anti-social behaviour and environmental effects 59%. this suggests that hereditary genetic factors are significant driver of anti-social crime.
specific candidate genes like the short variant MAOA gene have been linked to high levels of criminal behaviour including aggression. it metabolises a range of neurotransmitters including serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline which potentially leads to poor impulse control.
genetic explanations suggest there are in herited genotypes that make it more likely an individual will engage in criminal behaviour - phenotype- like aggressive behaviour.
neural explanations suggest theres a range of biological processes and structures within the brain that keads to criminal behaviour, includes biochemistry and large neural structures.
biological features in the brain that regulate behaviour.
reduced limbic system activity=
emotions like guild, empathy and compassion are important in inhibiting violent action. psychopaths are thought to have a problem with their limbic system resulting in the inability to experience these emotions
is responsible for executive function, often overriding strong, aggressive emotional responses from other areas of the brain. thought to be underdeveloped in violent criminals resulting in being unable to resist impulses
neurotransmitters are biological molecules that regulate brain activity and imbalance usually is linked to violnce. High levels of
result in aggression, likely due to its role in the f/f response.
is linked to the ability to control impulsivity and if it is at a low level this could result in criminals being unable to resist emotional urges.
causes pleasure linked to drug addiction. trying to satisfy the craving can lead to criminality
research evaluation of genetic and neural explanation
POSITIVE- study on extended family in the Netherlands whose males had history of impulsive aggression. 5 males had defective MAOA genes producing no MAOA. suggests extreme levels of criminality can have genetic origin that leads to a neurological abnormality
POSITIVE- Raine. measured volume of frontal lobe in people with APD compared to those without. people with APD had an 11% reduction in prefrontal grey matter. suggests that the reduction in conscience, fear response and decision making defecits in people with APD is due to measurable neurological differences.
POSITIVE- important implications for the justice system. understanding biological determinism may help treatments rather than just punishments.
NEGATIVE- research is socially sensitive. genetic theories could be used to justifiy policies that discriminate against people with certain genes on the basis of reducing violent crime
NEGATIVE- biologically reductionist. factors like childhood can influence. additionally, most reearch is done into violent criminals when most criminals arent violent