BLACK AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS, 1917-55 - Coggle Diagram
BLACK AMERICAN CIVIL RIGHTS, 1917-55
LIFE IN THE SOUTH, 1917-32
Southern Black political inferiority was ensured:
- Literacy tests
- Poll taxes often manipulated to prevent black voting.
- Black inability to vote led to all-white juries.
- White juries and LA officials gave black Americans little to no protection from the law.
IMPACT OF NORTHERN MIGRATION, 1917-32
Reasons why Black people migrated to the North:
- Fewer lynchings.
- No Jim Crow laws.
- Greater employment opportunities
- WW1 created a demand for workers in the North.
Positive impact of Northern migration on Black Americans:
- Less segregation- they could sit alongside whites on public transport.
- Black people could vote.
- Voting gave black Northerners representation and influence e.g. Oscar Depriest, who was the first black American elected to HOR in the 20th century.
- Lots more job opportunities.
Disadvantages of Northern migration for Black Americans:
- Racism made it difficult to obtain employment.
- Urban accomodation was crowded and expensive.
- Black migrants were concentrated in ghettos, partly because white Americans ensured black Americans could not live alongside them or have access to white schools.
Impact of migration on race relations in North:
- When numbers of black people increased, they became increasingly resented.
- It increased racial tension outside the south.
- Helped prompt the revival of the KKK.
- KKK membership rose from 100,000 in 1921 to 4 million in 1924.
- Whites resented black competition for jobs and accommodation after WW1, which led to riots. These riots were blamed on black people having communist influence by the press.
- Increased violence towards black Americans- 1917-21, 58 home-made bombs were thrown at the homes of black residents.
- Increasing race consciousness.
- Middle class Black Americans joined the NAACP.
- Most popular black organisation in the 1920s was the UNIA.
- By 1925, UNIA had 500,000 members (much more than NAACP).
- NAACP sought integration, UNIA advocated self-help, armed self-defence, black pride (more radical than NAACP).
General consequences of the migration:
- Huge population increase in the North, led to overcrowding.
- Black people had more political influence in the North.
- Labour force in the south shrank.
- Farming areas in the south struggled.
- The poorest families in the south suffered the most, most of them were black.