INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY - Coggle Diagram
INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Job Analysis, Job Evaluation & Performance Appraisal
Step 3 ->
Performance Appraisal (Performance Assessments)
-> a measure used to evaluate can be referred to as "criterion measures"
-> (Quantitative Data)
-> they are a direct measures of productivity -> (e.g. how many car's sold in a dealership)
-> not available for all jobs -> may be impacted by situational factors (e.g. malfunctioning equipment) -> Not very useful when evaluating complex jobs.
-> (Performance Ratings)
-> they can measure performance aspects that objective measures cannot -> they account for situational factors -> useful when measuring motivation, problem-solving ability and effectiveness of working with others.
-> Subject to rater bias and errors -> can be completed by an employee, supervisor, peers or others involved with performance
(2) Types of Subjective Rating Techniques
1. Relative Rating Scales
-> head-to-head comparison of employees
-> assign a specific percent of workers to each category for each aspect of job performance
> provides inaccurate info when employees don't match the pre-specified category -> not good for large groups
-> decreases rater biases
-> compares all employees to all other employees in pairs on each dimension of job performance
-> decreases rater biases (strictness, leniency or central tendency)
-> very time consuming b/c lots of employees to rate
2. Absolute Rating Scale
-> requires rater to evaluate without considering the performance of other employees (e.g. independent comparison)
Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
-> type of rating scale which each end point is anchored with descriptive bx's (e.g. Likert scale for a bx)
-> very time-consuming to develop & job specific
-> decreases rater biases, & provides useful feedback to workers
Critical incident technique (CIT)
-> identifies employee bx's associated with exceptionally poor or good performance (e.g. supervisor observes and completes +/- critical incident q's)
-> provides useful feedback to employees
-> time-consuming to develop & focuses on extreme bx's
measures of job performance are also called "criterion measures"
Forced Choice Checklists
(rater is presented a series of statements and they have to choose one in each pair) are the best way to counteract Halo Bias
rank employees best to worst. Not a good system as you may have tp rank good employees as bad.
-> what the job performance measure actually measures
-> the ideal measure that assess all important aspects of job performance
-> occurs when the criterion measure is impacted by factors unrelated to job performance (e.g. what is not measured but should be)
-> aspects of a job performance that are not assessed by the criterion measure (e.g. what should be measured that is not).
Step 1 ->
Job Analysis -
> is conducted to obtain info about the knowledge and skills required to perform tasks successfully. (KSAO)
Functions of a JA
include the following;
measures of job performance
validate selection instruments
obtain info needed to
write a job description
make decisions about
used to conduct a JA include the following
electronic performance monitoring
2 options when conducting a JA
2. Worker Orientated (KSAO's)
-> what knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics are required to do the job successfully (ex. education, physical ability ect.)
-> always worker-oriented which focuses on characteristics required to perform a job successfully (e.g. can your employee model the company values?)
1. Work-orientated (task analysis)
-> tasks that must be accomplished to do the job (lifting, typing, installing)
PAQ (Position Analysis Questionnaire)
-> is a structured questionnaire that allows an employer to compare activities across different jobs
Latin Restaurant "KSAO's" -
> are the ingredients needed for staff
KSAO example (waiting tables)
-> knowledge of menu, interpersonal communication, multi-tasking, organizational skills, etc.
: Communication passes through many people and everyone communicates with each other. Better for complex tasks, employees prefer this,
Communication passes through 1 person. Better for simple tasks, supervisors prefer this.
not sure what this stuff is?
-> Job Evaluation (Program Evaluation)
-> how much money is the position worth (eVALU(E)ation)
-> used to establish pay equity across different jobs that require similar ability -> using a point system assigned to job-related factors -> points are summed up and used to determine the total compensation for a job
Rating & Selection
Types of Rater Biases
-> affect the accuracy of the subjective performance ratings
Halo error/effect/halo bias
-> (can be negative or positive) -> occurs when people judge all aspects of someone's bx's based on one single attribute. (Ex. looks)
-> A rater's ratings of a worker are influenced by the performance of another worker they evaluted (e.g. supervisor rates an aver worker "below aver) b/c she just rated another worker who was "excellent"
-> when rater fives higher ratings to workers who are similar to him/herself
-> rater consistently uses only one part of the rating scale (e.g. rating in extremes, all good, all bad or all neutral)
Central tendency bias
-> rater consistently gives workers average ratings, regardless of their true performance
-> rater consistently gives workers high (leniency) or low (strictness) ratings, regardless of their true performance
Selection Techniques (KSAO- knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics)
Ex. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) or Kuder Occupational Survey- low validity for predicting success, however useful for predicting job satisfaction, perissitance and choice.
Low validity for predicting job performance, they are used to select employees with reduced probability of counterproductive job behaviours.
Conscientiousness (from the Big 5) is an accurate predictor of job performance and training success across a wide range of settings. Personality tests= contextual proformance.
Work (job) Samples
These tests measure a sample of work behaviour in standardized, job-like conditions. Genrally a good predictor of job performance. Samples of motor skills have higher validity than verbal skills
Less likely than other methods to unfairly discriminate against minorities.
Moderaly accurate at predicting job performance. Situational interviews have higher validity, with structured board interviews using consensus ratings= highest corrected validity.
Job Knowledge Tests
Job specific and often conducted when an applicant has previous job experiance. Validity increases as as job complexity and job test similarity increase
General Mental Ability (cognitive ability and general intelligence) Tests
High validity, most valid predictor of job performance. High risk of adverse impact
Consistes of information such as work history, education, interests and skills. highly predictive of job success and for predicting turnover. Equally valid across racial groups.
Often used at the management level.
In-basket test- how would you deal with this content of this in-basket.
Expensive and not an easy resource to access. Evaluations are susceptible to criterion contamination.
When it produces a substantially different rate of selection for different groups that are defined on the basis of race, gender, age ect.
Determined mathematically using the 80% or 4/5ths rule. Adverse impact occurs when selection rate for a minority group is less than 80% of the selection rate of the majority group.
May be permitted when selection criteria is a bona fide occupational qualification.
when one group consistently scores lower than another on a selection test but both group preform equally well on the job.
: when a selection procedure is a valid predictor of job performance for one group and is less or not valid for another group.
Within Group Norming: Instead of comparing your performance to people in other teams or departments, within group norming focuses on how well you're doing compared to your teammates.
Banding: treating scores within a given range as equivalent.
Separate Cutoffs: setting different cutoff scores on the selection test for different groups.
American's with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990): it is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities. It ensures equal opportunities and access for people with disabilities in various aspects of life, such as employment, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.
Incremental Validity= Positive Hit Rate (New)- Base Rate(Old)
70% (new) - 50% (Old) = 20% (incremental validity)
Taylor Russel Tables
Utility Analysis: assess the cost effectiveness of a selection procedure.
Combining Predictors: you want high correlation with the criterion but low correlation to each other. High correlation between predictors is called
(this is bad).
Multiple Cutoff: Applicant must score above the minimum cutoff point on each predictor in order to be hired (non-compensatory).
Multiple Hurdles: Applicants must score above a minimum cut-off and predictors are administered one at a time. If you do not pass the 1st you will not move onto the 2nd (non-compensatory). - Saves time and money.
Multiple Regression: uses 2 or more predictors, one low score can be compensated for with a high score on another predictor (compensatory). Ex. EPPP
Criteria Contamination: when the criteria measure is impacted but factors unrelated to job performance. Ex. number of hours in office
Criteria Defficency: aspects of job performance that are not assessed by the criteria measure. Ex. evaluate secratry but not typing speed
Needs Analysis OR Needs Assessment
The needs analysis definition involves the process of team or employee evaluation to identify their level of skills and training needs. It is the first step that should be taken in order to successfully develop an effective training program
Tasks analysis: similar to job analysis, specifies what knowledge and skills are needed.
Person analysis determines if employees have deficits in areas ID'd by the task analysis.
Organization analysis asks is training what will solve the problem.
Demographic analysis helps determine the training need of employees from different groups (ex. young v. old)
Vestibule Training(Off the Job training):
provided training with a simulation of the actual work.
self-learning material provided by the employer. Can involve pen and paper or computer assisted instruction.
On the Job Training:
Job Rotation is one approach where the individual is rotated through several jobs to increase their range of skills so they can preform multiple jobs in the company
Job Evaluation (Program Evaluation)
-> how much money is the position worth (eVALU(E)ation)
evaluation administered at the summary of the program.
evaluation administered long after the completion of training to confirm it utility.
evaluation administered while programs still being formed or participated in.
: happens after the previous 3 are completed to confirm reliability and validity.
Kirkpatricks 4 levels evaluation model
: Reaction criteria, Learning criteria, Behaviour criteria and results criteria.
Philips Return on Investment (ROI)
: Level 5 evaluation, proposed to calculate the return on investment of an intervention or training.
Train the Raters (Managers)
Frame of Reference (FOR)
-> when managers are trained on how to evaluate staff -> improves accuracy by
having raters practice identifying different levels of performance as defined by the standard
provides raters with a common reference standard to be used in evaluating performance
making sure raters understand multidimensional aspects of job performance
-> indicates the consistency of scores (extent of agreement among raters)
consensual observer drift
-> occurs when raters who rate together tend to become less accurate in their ratings
Motivation & Satisfaction
Career Choice & Development
Krumboltz (Happenstance) Social Learning Theory
Which of the following statements is most consistent with Krumboltz's happenstance theory of career development?.
A) Individuals who have a clear plan for their career are more likely to be successful in achieving their goals.
B) Chance events and environmental factors have little influence on an individual's career path.
C) Being adaptable and open to new experiences is important for career success.
D) Personal values and interests are the only factors that matter in career decision-making.
Correct answer: C
Explanation: According to Krumboltz's happenstance theory, being adaptable and open to new experiences is important for career success. The theory emphasizes the role of chance events and environmental factors in shaping career development, and suggests that individuals who actively seek out opportunities and remain open to new experiences are more likely to encounter positive happenstances that can lead to fulfilling careers. Option A is incorrect because the theory suggests that individuals may not always have a clear plan for their career. Option B is incorrect because the theory highlights the significant influence of chance events and environmental factors on career development. Option D is incorrect because the theory recognizes that personal values and interests are important factors but not the only ones that matter in career decision-making.
4 types of influences on career making decisions
3) Learning experiences-
observations and lessons we make about other people and their experiences.
4) task approach skills
-> problem-solving skills, work habits, etc -> the skills needed to choose a career path
2) Environment Conditions and Events
-> beyond one's control (e.g. political, cultural, technological forces, etc)
1) Genetic Characteristics/Special abilities
-> genetics may enable or limit career choice (e.g. intelligence, innate abilities, etc)
Based on Bandura's Social Learning Theory
-> being adaptable to new experiences is NB for career success -> emphasis is on chance events and environmental factors in shaping career development
need a story and need to clean up mind map
Holland's Theory of Career Choice (RIASEC) (culturally criticized)
Creative, intuitive and imaginative (e.g. Writer, musician & artist)
Humanistic, idealistic and concerned for others (e.g. teacher or counsellor)
Analytical, observant and inquisitive (e.g. science, math and technology)
Energetic, Ambitious, Adventurous and self-confident (e.g. sales, entrepreneurs and business executives)
Practical, physical, hands-on (e.g. gardener, engineer and military)
Efficient, careful conforming and organized (e.g. Accountant, secretary and banker)
– lack of fit between one’s type and work environment. People leave jobs because of too much incongruence or because of a chance to increase their congruence. Best decision makers are I’s; worst are C’s.
– closeness on the hexagon of one’s first and second choices. The higher one’s consistency, the more integrated one’s characteristics (values, interests, traits) and the greater one’s vocational maturity, persistence and achievement.
- the amount of spread between one’s first and second code letters; denotes how clear one’s type is.
story ideas -> truck on blocks = differential -> incongruence - can't put a puzzle together, consistency oobleck ???
-> when choosing a career, people prefer jobs where they can be around others who are like them.
need a story about Holland University
Tiedman & O'Hara Decision Making Model
(based on Erikson's concept psychosocial theory of ego identity)
individuals become aware of the need to make a career decision and begin to gather information about their interests, values, and skills.
individuals put their career choice into action.
comes when their is a realization that an occupation is not 'fitting' with a person's personality.
Two kinds of reality:
Personal reality and common reality- need to be aware of both realities to enhance the development of your career.
need a story
Super's Life Space (Life Career Rainbow)
Stages: (Getting Every Experience Means Death)
-> develop self concept and move from play to work.
11-12- id likes and dislikes as basic career choices
13-14 incorporate reality, relate personal skills to specific jobs.
4-10 career fantasies
-> (Dora the Explorer) -> develop realistic self-concept, find preferences through exploration. Preferences become Choices when acted upon.
Crystallization of Performance
18-21preferences converted into specific choice. Reality dominates as entering the job market. Secondary Education or Trade chosen.
Specifiying of Vocational Preference
21-25 trial with little commitment, try life's work, person may cycle back through crystallizing and specifying.
15-17 tentative choices incorporate needs, interest and abilities. Attempted in fantasy, course work, parttime work and volunteering.
-> secure niche in ones field and advance.
Trail and Stabilization
25-30 process of settling down, may make 1 or 2 changes before right job is found.
30-44 efforts to secure and continue to develop ones position.
-> (Mechanical shop) -> preserve our gains and develop non-occupational interests.
Disengagement or Decline 65+
-> (Unplug off the grid) -> deceleration of career, gradual disentanglement from work to enter retirement. Find other sources of satisfaction
Cam's comment - we only need to know the stages, not the specifics within each stage
8 roles (child, student, leisurite, citizen, worker, parent, spouse, homemaker)
- as self-concept becomes for realistic and stable so will vocational choice and behaviour. Work satisfaction tied to degree of implementation of self-concept.
-> similarity between one's actual vocational behaviour and what is expected at that stage of development. Affective and Cognitive.
need a story here -> possible one might be GEMM's with Death being the final stage -> life-savers (life roles)
Dawis & Lofquist (work adjustment theory)
-> is a way of understanding how people fit into their jobs and how well they adapt to their work environment. It focuses on the match between a person's skills, needs, and preferences, and the characteristics of their job.
2 key factors
-> an employee's satisfaction with their job
-> an employer's satisfaction with their employee's
work adjustment = satisfaction
need a story
Driver & Brousseau Career Concept Model
4 core concepts
Expert career concept
-> motivated by desire for
develop expertise that involves life-long committment
Spiral Career concept
-> motivated by
need for personal growth
& opportunities to be creative involving lateral movement
linear career concept
-> motivated by desire for
power & achievement
-> careers require upward movement with infrequent changes
-> motivated by a desire for variety & independence which involves lateral movement across different occupations every 2-4 years.
need a story here
Gottfredson's Theory of Circumscription and Compromise: How gender and prestige influence and limit career choice.
Circumscription: progressive elimination of least preferred options or alternatives that occurs as children become aware of occupational differences in gender, prestige and then field of work.
Stages start at age 3 and end by mid-adolescents. The 4 stages are: orientation to size and power, orientation of sex roles, influence of social class, introspection and perceptiveness.
Compromise: expansion of occupational preference in recognition and accommodation to external constraints encountered in implementing preferences.
Cam's comment - don't have this stuff do I need to learn it
Roe's Theory- career choice
is either person-orientated or non-person-orientated depending on how a child interacted with their parents.
Three parenting orientations: Overprotective, Avoidant and Acceptant. ex. a child with avoidant parents would gravitate towards object orientated fields such as science and technology.
According to Anne Roe's personality approach to career development, which of the following is most likely to influence an individual's occupational choices?
A) Social and economic factors
B) Educational and vocational training
C) Personality characteristics and early childhood experiences
D) Gender and cultural norms
Correct answer: C
Explanation: Anne Roe's personality approach to career development suggests that an individual's occupational choices are primarily determined by their personality characteristics and early childhood experiences. Roe identified six psychological needs and eight broad occupational fields that align with these needs. She believed that parents play a critical role in shaping their children's occupational choices, and that differential reinforcement from authority figures can influence the development of the child's personality and occupational preferences. While social and economic factors, educational and vocational training, and gender and cultural norms may also influence career development, according to Roe's theory, personality characteristics and early childhood experiences are the primary determinants of occupational choices.
Cam doesn' t have this stuff in his study materials - do I need to learn it? Clean up mind map
Tests used in Career Counseling (Aptitude, achievement and interest tests)
Aptitude Tests: assess a persons potential for learning and performance.
Special Aptitude Tests: used to assess specific abilities needed for a job, they have a high degree of specificity.
Multiple Aptitude Batteries: a number or tests or subtests that each measure a different aptitude. DAT (Differentia Aptitude Test)for grades 8-12 and tests both job-related and general abilities. The GATB (General AptitudeTest Battery) for high school and adults for vocational counseling and job referral.
Achievement Tests: measure how well a person has mastered a particular domain.
Ability Test- both achievement and aptitude with the ability being 'capacity to preform tasks'.
not sure what this is - ask Janelle
stuff was on the test
Predictors of Job fit/Outcomes
Affective/attitudinal: a workers emotional attachment to a job, passion for their work and commitment to their organization. This only moderately relates to job performance.
Continuance: remain at a job for economic or social reasons, they perceive leaving as too costly.
Normative: sense of loyalty based on investments the organization has already made in the employee and they stay out of obligation.
not sure what this is?? Ask janelle
Theories of Motivation -> Satisfaction, Commitment & Stress
Herzberg's 2-factor theory
-> Satisfaction & Motivation
Hygiene (job context & intrinsically motivated)
-> factors that need to be present to ensure a reasonable level of employee satisfaction -> they are a pre-requisite for indiv motivation
Relationship with co-workers
interpersonal relations (overly nice)
positive work environment
Story -> Hermie's wants to be dentist & his motivators are hygiene related
Higher level needs are
Motivators (extrinsically motivated)
-> factors that motivate others to work harder
Story ->Yukon is scaling the mountain to reach his goals
Hygiene is about what is being practiced??
-> Hermie (dentist), Abominable Snow Monster & Yukon
-> was interested in better
understanding professional motivation
-> professional motivation as an end - a desirable outcome of needs being met.
Organizational Justice & Commitment (Colquitt)
McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory
-> motivated by opportunities to form relationship & interact w others
-> ability to influence other people to gain status, prestige & recognition
Achievement (nAch) -
> prefer tasks that are moderate difficulty & risk (50/50), & assume responsibility for accomplishing tasks, prefer not to delegate & desire clear feedback
As long as that primary need is met from the perspective of the worker then the worker will be motivated. The perspective bit is key.
-> people are primarily motivated (in the workplace) by one of 3 needs:
need a story
Vroom's Expectancy Theory (VIE Theory)
-> motivation is based on (3) factors
-> motivation is high only when all 3 factors are positive
> the belief that effort will lead to acceptable performance
-> worker's belief that successful performance will result in certain outcomes
If you think you can take an action that will directly lead to obtaining a reward you want, you will be motivated to take that action.
If someone seems unmotivated that means that
they don’t believe that they can take the action (either because they lack the skills/knowledge to do so, or something in the environment makes it impossible)
they don’t believe the action will actually lead to the reward
they don’t care about the reward
-> VIE....Vroom -> Frat party initiation -> motorvation -> at the party limbo dance setting bar high (expectancy), while playing a tamborine (instrumentality) -> get the golden "V" which is the reward that goes on his jacket to wear with pride!
Goal-Setting Theory (Latham & Locke)
-> goal acceptance& commitment is crucial which includes 5 principles
-> being engage b/c it is something you actually care about
-> helps to make adjustments along the way
> goals should be challenging enough to motivate you to action
-> it can't be too complicated
-> goals should be specific and clear
need a story
Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)
Different from McClelland’s model however, this model suggests that all people have the SAME basic motivational “needs” (meaning, autonomy, and feedback) - as opposed to just one of three different options - and it’s a matter of making all 3 present in the job to elicit a motivated response.
Meaningfulness of work
includes the following (3) variables
-> responsibility of outcomes
-> knowledge of results
need a story
Equity Theory (Adams)
2 types of inequity
-> when workers perceive their efforts to be greater that others (more work for less pay)
-> when workers view their efforts to be less than others (less work for more pay)
->people are motivated when they feel that things are fair -> If they are not fair, they will try to achieve a balance.
need a quick story
Leadership Behaviours (Ohio State Research)
high in initiating structure are task-oriented
-> fosters trust and respect
high in consideration are person-oriented
-> focus is on achieving goals
Research on gender
women and men are more effective in traditional masculine /feminine settings
woman are more likely to adopt participating/democratic style
men are more likely to adopt a directive/autocratic style
Fiedler's Contingency Model
-> leadership depends on favorableness of the situation -> LPC = lease preferred co-worker
High LPC is PERSON-ORIENTED
-> are most effective when
leader-member relations are good,
task structure is low,
the leader has limited position power.
something is contingent on the type of leader that you will become
Low LPC is TASK-ORIENTED
-> are more effective in situations where
task structure is high
leader-member relations are poor
the leader has strong position power
need a story
(b/c they are often assertive) &
(are most effective
Tranformational v. Transactional Leadership (Bass)
: change focused- recognize the need for and are able to create a vision of organizational change (e.g. change, vision and future-based)
focused more on stability that change and lead by the use of contingent reinforcement. (e.g. keeping things afloat, weathering the storm)
-> people have the need to adapt to
and to grow over time
need a story
Hersey & Blanchard Situational Theory -> Leadership Styles
high task & high relationship (e.g. self-employed)
low task & high relationship
: high task origination & low relationship orientation. (e.g. McDonalds worker)
low task & low relationship
> leadership effectiveness depends on employees job maturity, which is determined by motivation & ability
House's Path-Goal Theory of Leadership:
subordinate satisfaction and motivation is maximized when they perceive their leader as helping them achieve their desired goal.
4 leadership styles
-> include subordinates in decision-making (e.g. a group of interns, looking for encouragement or validity from their leader)
Instrumental (directive) Leaders:
-> leader provides specific guidelines and establish clear rules and procedures -> (e.g. leader tells people what to do)
-> set challenging goals and encourage higher levels of performance -> (e.g. get out of my way leadership - sales team)
-> focus on establishing supportive relationships with subordinates (e.g. ????)
1) Help with specific goals, 2) remove obstacles to goals, 3) reward subordinates for accomplishing goals.
-> you can change adapt your leadership style based on the situations
The Pirate House
need a story to differentiate the 2 types of goal theory
Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
- leadership is a process centred on interactions b/t leaders and members (dyadic relationship).
Three phases: stranger-acquaintance-partner (from out group to in)
-> has more decision making influence, access to resources and responsibility. Receive more leader support, trust and initiative beyond the obligations of the job.
-> lower quality, both parties completing only formal obligations.
need a story
Vroom and Yetton's Normative (Decision Making) Model
AII (Autocratic) leaders
-> obtain information from subordinates but make the final decision on their own.
CII (Consultative) leaders
-> discuss problems with subordinates as a group but make the final decision on their own.
AI (Autocratic) leaders
-> do not consult subordinates and make decisions on their own.
GII (Group decision) leaders
-> discuss problems with subordinates as a group and reach a group decision through discussion and consensus.
CI (Consultative) leaders
-> discuss problems with subordinate individually but make the final decision on their own.
need a story
-> 5 bases of social power
-> formal position, titles & roles = leads to compliance
-> knowledge & expertise = leads to
-> control over punishment = leads to
-> respect and admiration = leads to commitment
-> control over finances and nonfinancial rewards = leads to
what to do with this??
Client Centered Case Consultation:
the consultant helps the consultee with a particular client.
Consultee Centered Case Consultation
: consultant IDs and addresses deficiencies in the consultee that are interfering with their ability to provide effective services.
Consultee-centered Administrative Consultation
: consultant works with program administrators to improve their ability to be effective with future programs.
Program Centered Administrative Consultation
: consultant works with program admin to determine why an existing program is not having the desired outcome.
: Entry, Diagnosis, Implementation, Disengagement
Cam has in his own mind map seperately
Taylor's Scientific Management
-> workers are motivated by economic gain (e.g. paycheque) -> SM method is an objective way to measure
choosing workers scientifically by matching skills with training
is used to determine the best way to do a job -> (e.g. time & motion studies)
equal division of labour -> managers plan -> worker's execute the plan
cooperation rather than coercion
> to maximize efficiencies
need a story -> Taylor Swift ?? time/motion
-> division of labour ensure's order and efficiency
Bureaucracy must have
Career Orientation -
> managers are career professionals, not owners of units they manage
-> uniform application of rules, and controls, not according to personalities
-> positions are organized with a clear chain of command
Formal Rules & Regulations
-> system of written rules and standard operating procedures
Division of labour -
> jobs broken down into simple, routine, well-defined tasks
-> people selected for jobs based on technical qualifications
in a nutsell -> Weber's bureaucracy is a division of labour with well-defined hierarchy of authority, with formal rules and procedures where employment decisions are made based on competence & merit, written records of decisions & actions
Story about Weber the beaurocrat
Mayo's Human Relations Approach/Theory of Management
-> workers productivity increased due to the attention the received as participants and not due to work conditions
"Binging" -> to decrease worker output to work-group norms by punishing the worker who was doing more than others
social factors are more important than work conditions
Open Systems (Katz & Kahn)
-> systems undergo cycle of events, and act in ways to maintain homeostasis
principle of equifinality
-> systems achieve the same goal/outcome in multiple ways
principle of multifinality
-> systems can achieve dissimilar goals/outcomes from the same initial conditions
Story -> Star Trek - Wrath of Khan
Theory X vs. Theory Y
-> focuses on interactions between supervisors & subordinates -> supervisor's beliefs about subordinates has a self-fulfilling prophecy effect
Theory X -
> worker's are lazy, dislike responsibility, resist change and are not concerned about organizational goals (e.g. dangle a carrot to motivate you)
Theory Y -
> worker's enjoy their jobs, are self-directed, internally motivated and seek responsibility ->
this theory is best outcome for employees & organizations
-> Japanese management -> people are a part of a larger whole where everyone works as a team
attitude toward responsibility & loyalty overrides individuality
Lewin's model of planned change -> Cam prepjet stuff
Cummings and Worley - General Model of Planned Change -> cam's prepjet stuff
Total Quality Management (TQM) -> continuous improvement through incremental changes to processes
-> a tools that compares products/services to competitors
-> traiining via statistical analysis and project management, used to problem-solve & reduce defect rate of products
Quality Circle (QC's)
-> small groups of staff who volunteer to meet to discuss problems & resolve issues
Appreciative Inquiry - 4D's -> cam's prepjet stuff
Self Managed Work Teams (SMWT)
task assignment control & control methods to complete the task
group controls work schedule, budget, hiring/firing of staff
group has total responsibility & control over their work
group has control over performance appraisals
no supervisor -> leader changes based on project
-> increased job satisfaction & job productivity, decreased absenteeism
-> design a job so it provides opportunities for challenge, advancements and other motivating factors to increase worker satisfactions & motivation
compressed work week
-> strong positive effect on job satisfaction, weaker effect on job productivity and effects unclear on absenteeism