UNIT 1.3 - BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH - Coggle Diagram
UNIT 1.3 - BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
Classic Evidence: Watson and Rayner
Studies involved 1 participants, a normal male infant ages 9 months
Not a case study
as it only focuses on little Albert and not a more in-depth analysis of the individual and aspects of their life.
Not an experiment
because there was only one condition
to determine the effects of certain stimuli.
Conducted in controlled conditions - in a well lit dark room.
Study described as a controlled observation
Emotional tests Albert was confronted with, a white rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, masks with and without hair, cotton wool, burning newspaper.
Establishing emotional response:
(11 months and 3 days old) White rat was presented to Albert he reached to it, at that moment a steel bar was struck just behind his head.
Testing the conditional emotional response:
(11 months and 10 days old) Shown rat with no sound to see if the previous experience affected his behaviour with the rat.
Joint stimulation was introduced he was shown the rat whilst the load noise was made behind his head at the same time.
(11 months and 15 days) The question at this time was whether the learned link between rat and noise would be generalised to other objects.
Albert was presented with, the rat, wooden blocks, a ribbit, a dog, a seal fur coat, cotton wool and john watsons hair.
Changing the environment:
(11 months 20 days) Alberts conditioned emotional response was 'freshened up' using some 'joint stimulation'
He was then placed in a large lecture room with four people present.
The effects of time:
(12 months 21 days) tested for one last time. The final tests involve a Santa Claus mark, a fur coat, the rat, the rabbit, the dog and the blocks.
Albert showed not fear on the objects before conditioning
Establishing a conditioned emotional response:
Albert tested again, when bar struck fell forward, burying head on table.
Testing the conditioned emotional response:
Albert showed new response to rat a week later, watched instead of reaching out for it. Albert showed cautious behaviour towards the rat, after more joint stimulation Albert become more and more distressed.
Albert played happily with blocks but when showed rat immediately responded with fear, indicating that he retained his conditioned emotional response to the rat
Changing the environment
After taken to new environment Alberts responses to the rat, rabbit and dog were less extreme than before. After 'freshening up' fear response was stronger.
The effects of time
Alberts reaction to furry animals/ objects was not as extreme as previously but clearly avoided them and whimpered. On occasions he cried
This study demonstrated with ease with which a fear response can be created. Just two 'joint stimulations' were sufficient to create the conditioned emotional response . Seven 'joint stimulation' were given to bring about the complete reaction.
Strengths and weakness to the behaviourist approach
: The scientific approach is advantageous because it enables us to distinguish mere beliefs from real facts.
: Behaviourism continues to embody the truly scientific approach, seeking to study behaviour that is observable and directly measurable. Intangible concepts such as feeling and thoughts oberationalised in terms of stimulus and response behaviours.
: When it comes to treatments for mental disorders, people want evidence to show that such treatment have been successful rather than just being asked to believe that they work. therefore the scientfic approach is desirable.
Focus on the here and now
: The behaviourist approach is not concerned with the events in a persons past.
: The behaviourist approach means that the treatment of mental disorders does not have to look for complicated causes but just focuses of the current symptoms and trying to remove them.
: For example, systematic desensitisation also seeks to treat undesirable behaviour, such as a fear of social situations, by teaching a new stimulus-response link between the feared situation and relaxation. No attempt is made to understand why the phobia might have developed in the first place, removal of symptoms is the sole aim of the treatment.
Emphasis on nurture
: The behaviourist approach focuses exclusively on the surrounding environment as a means of shaping behaviour.
: In the nature-nurture debate, the role of nature is ignored, the role of external factors is exaggerated within this approach. Our behaviour is greatly governed by many internal factors, such as motivation, emotion and innate abilities.
: For example, behaviourists would not consider how our genetic-makeup could influence personalitly and behaviour.