Education , External factors - factors outside education system. Home,…
impact of feminism
feminism is a social movement that strives for equal rights for women. Challenges trad stereotypes of womens role.
mcrobbies - study of girls’ magazines in 1970s. Emphasised getting married and not ‘ being left on the shelf’. Nowadays they contain assertive, independent women.
changes encouraged by feminism may affect girls self-image and ambition with regard to family and careers. May explain improvements
changes in family
incr in divorce rates
incr in cohabitation and decr in number of 1st marriages
incr in LPF
changes attitudes in girls achievement. New adult role model of LPF headed by women.
divorce rates makes women provide for themselves.
changes in womens employment
1970 equal pay act makes it illegal to pay women less than men for work equal value, the 1975 sex discrim act outlaws discrim at work
pay gap btw men and women has halved from 30% to 15%
proportional of women in employment risen from 53%-to 67% by 2013.
breaking out of ‘glass ceiling’ - breaking barriers that keep them out of high level jobs.
sharpe - interviews with girls from 1970s and 1990s, major shift in ways girls see future.
‘74 - Low aspiration, edu was unfeminine and unattractive. Priority - ‘love, marriage, husbands, children, jobs, careers’ more or less in that order.
‘90s - careers are able to support themselves, independent with career rather than dependant on husbands.
O’Connor - study of 14-17 year old, marriage and children were not a major part of life plans.
equal opportunity policies
boys and girls entitled to same opportunity
GIST - girls into science and technology. Encourages girls ro pursue career in non-trad area. Female scientist = role models making science non-sexist
positive role models in school
Women in senior positions act as role models
GCSE and coursework
mitsos and Browne - girls are more successful in coursework, more organised than boys.
girls: spend more time on work, take more care with presentation, better at meeting deadlines, bring right materials and equipment to lesson.
Elwood - coursework is an unlikely cause to be the only cause of the gender gap, exams have more influence than coursework on final grades.
french - boys attracted more reprimands and got more attention
Francis - boys got more attention and were punished much more harshly, felt picked on and teachers held low expectation.
Swann - boys dominate in whole class discussion and girls are pair work and group work.
removal of gender stereotypes from textbooks, reading schemes and other learning material removed barrier to girls & achievemt
reading material portrayed girls as housewives and mothers
wiener - teachers have challenged stereotypes. Removing sexist images from learning material raise girls achievement due to positive image.
slelction and league tables
Jackson - intro of league tables improved oppurtunity for girls: high achieving girls attracted to schools. Low achieving boys are not. Creates a self fulfilling propechy - more likely to be recruited by good schools, more likely to do well.
slee - boys are less attractive to schools because they are more likely to suffer from behaviour difficulties and 4x more likely to be excluded.
views of girls’ achievement
liberal feminist - celebrate progress. Believe further progress will be made by continuing development of equal oppurtunity policies, encouraging positive role models and overcoming sexist attitudes and stereotypes.
radical feminists - systems remaismn patriachal and conveys clear message and still a mans world. Eg
sexual harassment of girl at school
educational limits girls subject choice and career options
more male head teachers
women are under-represented in many area of the cirriculm. Wiener - secondary school history cirriculm ‘woman-free zone’.
Identity, class and girls’ achievement
according to feminist, one reason for difference is conflict btw WC girls feminine identities and values and ethos of the school.
archer – symbolic capital, status, recognition and a sense of worth that we obtain from others.
girls gained symbolic cap from peers.
hyper-heterosexual feminine identies
invested time, effort and money to construct 'desirable' and 'glamorous' hyper-hetro, fem identities
identities that combined black urban American style with unisex sportwear an 'sexy' clothes makeup and hairstyles.
did this to avoid being called 'tramp' for wearing wrong brand.
often punished for having wrong appearance. Jewellery, clothing or makeup.
led to school 'othering the girls – not one of us', deeming them incapable of edu success and less worthy of respect
symbolic violence – harm done by denying someone symbolic cap, eg defining culture is worthless
archer – ideal female pupil = de-sexualised & MC.
boyfriends bought symbolic cap, got in the way of schoolwork and lowered aspirations.
losing interest in going uni, studying masc subject or gaining professional careers
aspired to 'settle down', have children and work locally in WC fem jobs.
WC girls adopted 'loud' fem identities that led to them being outspoken, independent and assertive.
failed to conform to schools stereotype of ideal fem pupil as passive and submissive to authority
bought conflict with teachers who interpret behaviour as aggressive rather than assertive
WC girls dilemma
either gain symbolic capital, from peers by conforming to a hyper-hetro sexuality
or by gaining educational capital, by rejecting WC identity and conform to the schools MC notion of respectable,
ideal female pupil.
Boys and literacy
boys and literacy
Gender gap is due to boys poor literacy
parents spend less time reading to boys
mothers read so seen as a feminine activity
boys leisure pursuits do little to help develop their language and communication skills.
girls ‘bedroom culture’ centred on staying in and talking with friends.
globalisation and decline of trad men’s jobs
mitosis and Browne - decline in male employment opportunity has led to ‘identity crisis for men’
boys believe they have little prospect of getting a job. Determines motivation and self-esteem and so they give up trying to get qualification
feminisation of education
Schools do not nurture ‘masc’ traits , competitiveness and leadership.
They celebrate qualities closely associated with girls, methodical working and attentiveness class.
Sewell - coursework a major cause of gender diff in achievement. Argues should be replaced with final exams and more emphasis on outdoor activities in curriculum.
shortage of male primary school teachers
male role models both at home and at school, cause boys’ underachievement
1.5 mil of boys are being raised in a female headed lone parent families.
Yougov - 14% of primary teachers are male. 39% of 8-11 yrs old have no lesson with male teachers
42% of boys who had the presence of male teachers worked harder
primary school has become feminised and female teachers cannot control boys behaviour
male teachers are better at giving strict discipline to boys in order to concentrate.
are more male teachers needed
Francis - 2/3 of 7-8 yr old believe the gender of teachers does not matter
read - two types of language discourse
disciplinary discourse - teachers authority made explicit and visible, through shouting, exasperated tone of voice or sarcasm
liberal discourse - teachers authority is implicit and invisible. Child-centred discourse involves ‘pseudo-adultification’. Teachers speaks to pupils as if they were adults, expects them to be kind, sensible and respectful of teacher.
Disciplinary Discourse is associated with masc and liberal discourse fem.
read - most teachers used masc disciplinary discourse to control pupils behaviour. 2 conclusions were drawn
most teachers favoured masc disciplinary discourse of control disprove the claim that culture of primary school has become feminised
female teachers were just as Likely as male to use Mac discourse to control pupils’ behaviour stricter classroom culture in which boys are said to thrive
Epstein - examined way masc is constructed within schools. Found WC boya re likely to be harassed, labelled as sissies. Subjected to homophobic verbal abuse if they appear to be ‘swots’
boys were more concerned about being labelled than girls, threat to their masc.
WC culture, masc is being tough ansd doing manual work.
WC boy tend to reject schoolwork to avoid brewing called gay.
moral panic about boys
ringrose - moral panic reflects fear that underachieving WC boys will grow up and grow up Tito become dangerous unemployable underclass that threatens social stability.
moral panic caused major shift in edu policy, preoccupied with raising boys achievement.
2 negative effects
narrowing equal opp policy down simply to ‘failing boys’, ignores problem of disadvantaged WC and minority ehtnic pupils
narrowing gender policy to issue and achievement gaps, ignored other problems faced by girls in school. Included sexual harassment and bullying, self esteem and identity issues and steryotyped subject choice.
osler - focus on underachieving boys and neglect of girls.
Girls disengage quietly. Boys disengage with public displays of ‘laddish’ amsc that attracts attention from teachers and policymakers.
Gender and subject choice
national curriculum option
choice in national curriculum, girls and boys choose differently
girls tend to chose food, boys choose graphic and resistant material.
AS and A levels
boys opt for maths and psychics, girls opt for sociology, English and languages.
A-level physics students who are girls are 'stubbornly consistent' at 20% for over 20 years.
questions effectiveness of WISE and GIST, encourages girls to take up subjects like physics.
gender segregation us very noticeable feature of vocational training.
explanation of gender differences in subject choice
gender role socialisation
Norman – from an early age, girls and boys are dressed differently, given toys and encouraged to take part in different activities.
Byrne – teachers encourage boys to be tough and show initiative and not to be weak and behave like sissies. Girls should be quiet, helpful, clean and tidy.
Murphy and Elwood – boys read hobby books and information text, girls are more likely to read stories about people.
Browne and ross – gender domain beliefs are shaped by early experiences and expectations of adults.
tasks and activities that boys and girls see as male of female 'territory' and relevant to themselves.
gendered subject images
science is seen as male subject because:
science teachers are more likely to be men
examples in textbooks are usually boys interest
boys monopolise apparatus and dominate laboratory, acting as if its theirs.
Colley – compute studies is seen as masc for 2 reasons
involves within machine – part of male gender domain
teaching put off girls. Task tend to be abstract and teaching style formal, few opportunities for group work, girls favour.
single sex schooling
Leonard – compared to mixed schools.
girls schools were more likely to take maths and science. Boys, English and languages
gender identity and peer pressure
paetcher – pupils see sport as male gender domain, girls who are 'sporty' have to deal with the image that contradicts conventional female stereotype.
Dewar – students would call girls 'lesbian' or 'butch' if they were interested in sports.
absence of peer pressure from opposite sex explain why girls in single-sex choose trad boys subjects.
gender career oppurtunities
jobs tend to have sex-typed as 'men's' and 'women's', women more housewife jobs (childcare and nursing).
over half of all women's employment falls within : clerical, secretarial, personal service and occupations.
gender, vocational choice and class
fuller – studied WC girl, had ambitions to childcare, hair and beauty. Reflected WC habitus – sense of what is a realistic expectation for 'people like us'.
Pupils’ sexual and gender identities
lees - identify a double standards if sexual morality in which boys boast about their own sexual exploits, but call girls ‘slags’ if they do not have steady boyfriend or dresses or talks in a specific way.
sexual conquest is approved of and given status by male peers and ignored by male teachers, promiscuity of girls attracts negative label.
Connell - ‘a rich vocabulary of abuse’ is a way which dominate gender and sexual sexual identities are reinforced
Boys use name calling to put girls down if they behave or dress in certain ways.
paechter - sees name-calling as helping to shape gender identity and maintain male power. Negative labels police sexual identities
lees and paechter - labels bear no relation to pupils actual sexual behaviour. Function is to simply reinforce gender norms.
male gaze - mac n ghail
the way male pupils and teachers look girls up and down, seeing them as sexual objects, making judgement about appearance.
Form of surveillance, dominate heterosexual masc is reinforced and dem devalued
one way proved their masc to their friends and is often combined with constant telling and retelling of stories and sexual conquest
boys who don’t display heterosexuality in this way, run risk of being labelled gay.
male peer groups, use verbal abuse to reinforce their definition of masc
Epstein and Willis - anti subculture accuse boys who want to do good at school as gay/effeminate.
mac an ghaill - study of how peer groups reproduce diff class-based masc gender identites. WC macho lads dismissive of other WC boys who worked hard and aspired to MC careerr, referring to them as ‘dickhead achievers’. MC projected image of effortless achievement - succeeding without trying.
redman and mac an ghaill - dominant definition of masc identity changes from that of macho in lower school to that of Englishmen in sixth form.
teachers and discipline
Haywood and mac an ghail - found Male teachers told of boys for ‘behaving like girls’ and teased them when they gained lower marks than girls.
askew and Ross - male teachers subtly reinforce message about gender
teachers ignored verbal abuse of girls and even blamed girls for attracting it.
male teachers have protective attitude towards female colleagues, coming into classes to ‘rescue’ them by threatening pupils who are being disruptive.
female peer groups: policing identity.
ringrose - study of 13-14 year old WC south wales school girls. Being popular was crucial to girls identity. Faced tension btw:
idealised fem identity - showing loyalty to female peer group, non competitive and getting along with everyone. In friendship culture
sexualised identity - competing for boys in dating culture
currie - while rel with boys confer symbolic capitalism, high rise because girls are forced to balance btw:
girls who are too competitive who believe they are better than their peers and risk slut shaming
girls who don’t compete for boyfriends risk frigid shaming by other girls.
shaming is a social control device which schoolgirls police and discipline and regulate each others identities.
boffin identity - girls who wants to be successful must conform to schools notion of ideal fem pupil identity.
reay - involved girls having to perform asexual identiey, presenting themselves as lacking any interest in boyfriend or popular fashion.
Francis - MC female boffins may respond in kind by defining other WC girls as ‘chavs’.
to label someone is to attach meaning or definition to them.
label based on stereotypical assumptions on class backgrounds
Becker - 60. Chicago high school teachers, judged students based on ‘ideal pupil’. Children from MC background closets to ideal
step 1 - teacher labels pupil, makes prediction about him.
step 2 - teacher treats pupil accordingly, acting like prediction is true.
step 3 - pupil internalises teachers expectation which becomes part of his self-concept or self-image, now actually becomes the kind of pupil the teacher labelled them.
separating children into different abilities groups or classes called ‘streams’.
WC more likely to find themselves in lower streams
once streamed, difficult to move into higher streams.
streaming and the A-C economy
Gilborn and Youndell - teachers are less likely to see WC and black as having ability. Pupils are more likely to be placed in lower streams and entered for lower-tier GCSEs.
pupils —> triage —> those who will pass anyway
—> borderline C/D pupils - targeted for extra help
—> hopeless cases
a group of pupils who share similar values and behaviour patterns. Emerge as a response as a response to the way pupils were labelled, reaction to streaming.
differentiation - process of teachers categorising pupils according to how they perceive their ability, attitude and/or behaviour. Streaming is a form of diffrentitation, put pupils in categories.
polarisation - process in which pupils respond to streaming by moving towards one of two opposite ‘poles’ or extremes.
gain status through academic success. Values are off the school, tend to form a pro-school subculture.
pupils placed in high streams tend to remain committed to the values of the school.
those placed in low streams suffer a loss of self-esteem, school undermined their self-worth by placing them in a position of inferior status.
label pushes them to search for alternative ways of gaining status. Involves inverting school values of hard work, obedience and punctuality.
gains status among their peers.
joining this subculture solve the problems of lack of Status. But creates further problems for pupils.
become a self-fulfilling prophecy of educational failure when joining this subculture.
variety of pupils responses
woods - other responses tho labelling:
ingratiation - being teachers pert
ritualism - going through the motion and staying out of trouble
retreatism - daydreaming and mucking about
rebellion - outright rejection of everything the school stands for.
labelling theorist are determinist. Assumes all pupils who are labelled have no choice but to fulfil the prophecy and will fail. Fuller study says otherwise.
Pupils class identities and the school
-> Refers to the ‘dispositions’ or learned, taken-for-granted ways of thinking, being/acting that are shared by a particular social class
includes taste and preferences about lifestyle and consumption, outlooks on life and expectation about what is normal/realistic for ‘people like us’.
group habitus formed as a response to positions in class structure.
one classes habitus is not better than another’s
MC has the power to define its habitus as a superior and to impose it on the education system. School puts a higher value on MC tastes and preference.
Symbolic capital and violence
pupils who have been socialised at home into MC tastes and preferences gain ‘symbolic capital’ or status and recognition from the school and deeemd to have worth/value
school devalues WC habitus so WC pupils taste are deemed tasteless and worthless
Withholding symbolic capital - ‘symbolic violence’. Defining WC and their tastes/lifestyle as inferior reproduces classs structure and keeps lower classes ‘in their place’.
symbolic violence led them to seek alternative ways of creating self-worth, status and value. Did so by constructing class identites for themselves by investing heavily in ‘styles’, especially through consuming brand Clothing such as Nike
pupils identites strongly gendered, girls adopted hetrosexual feminine style
not conforming was ‘social suicide’. Heavily policed by peers. Right appearance = approval from peers and safety from bullying.
teachers opposed ‘street’ styles as shopping ‘bad taste’ or even a threat. Conflict with dress code. Pupils adopted street styles risked being labelled as rebels.
Nike play a part in WC pupils rejection of HE, they saw as both unrealistic and undesirable
unrealistic - not for ‘people like us’, but for richer, posher, cleverer people and they would not fit in. Seen as unaffordable and risky investment
undesirable - not ‘suit’ preferred lifestyle/habitus. They did not want to live on a student loan they would be able to afford street styles that gave them their identity.
WC identity and educational success
Ingram - study of WC catholic boys from highly deprived neighbourhood.
One group passed 11+ exam and went to grammar school. Other failed and went to secondary school.
grammar school had strong MC habitus of high expectation of academic achievement. Secondary how low expectations
boys experienced a great pressure to ‘fit in’, problem for grammar school boys. Experienced tension between habitus of WV neighbourhood and MC school.
class identites and self exclusion
clash between WC identity and habitus of HE is a barrier to success
evans - group of 21 WC girls from South ldn studying for a-levels. Reluctant to apply to elite uni, those who did felt a sense of hidden barriers
lacking the cultural equipment needed to do well at school so they underachieve
essential part of the process of education and the way parents communicate affect children.
Hubbs Tait et al – where parents use language to evaluate their own understanding or abilities it improves cognitive performance
Bernstein – two types
Restricted code – used by WC. Limited vocab and based on unfinished, grammatically simple sentences. Predictable and may involve single word phrases or gestures. Speaker assumes listener shared same experiences
Elaborated code - used by MC. Wider vocab based on longer grammatically complex sentences. More varied and communicate abstract ideas.
Speaker does not assume listener share same experiences
Feinstein – parents own education is most important factor affecting children's achievements, since MC are better educated they are able to give children an advantage.
educated parents emphasise consistent and high expectation of their children and supports achievement by encouraging active learning.
less educated parents emphasis harsh or inconsistent discipline. ‘Doing as you’re told’ and ‘behaving yourself’.
parents educational behaviours
educated parents are more aware of what is needed to assist their children’s educational progress
edu parents good at : expert on childbearing, good relationship with teachers, better at guiding children’s interactions.
use of income
Bernstein and young - MC mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books, and activities that encourage reasoning skills and stimulate intellectual development. Also nutrition.
class, income and parental education.
better paid MC parents tend to be better educated then lower paid WC parent.
Feinstein - parents education has an influence on childrens achievement regardless of class and income.
better educated parents have children who are more successful at school.
subculture is a group of whose attitudes and values differ from those of the mainstream culture.
sugarman - 4 key features that are barrier to educational achievement :
Fatalism - a belief in fate - ‘whatever will be, will be’ and there is nothing you can do to change status. Contrast with MC values, which emphasises that you can change position through your own efforts.
collectivism - valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individ. Contrast with the MC view that an indivd should not be held back by group loyalties.
immediate gratification - seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices to get rewards in the future. MC emphasise deferred gratification, making sacrifices now for a greater reward later.
present-time orientation - seeing present as more important than the future ands not having long-term goals or plans. MC have future-time orientation that sees planning for future important.
aim to tackle problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools and communities in deprived areas. Intervene in early socialisation to compensate children for the deprivation they have a home.
operation head start - US a multi-billion dollar scheme of pre school in poorer areas in the 1960s. Aim was planned enrichment of deprived child’s environment to develop skill and instil achievement motivation. Included — improving parenting, setting up nursery classes and home visits.
myth of cultural capital
keddie - cultural deprivation as a myth sees it as victim-blaming. Dismisses idea that failure at school can be blamed on a culturally deprived home background. Points that child cannot be deprived of its own culture and argues WC children are simply culturally different, not culturally deprived.
poverty and lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income.
poverty is linked to educational underachievement:
Department of education barely a third of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) - widely used to measure child poverty - achieve 5 or more GCSE at A*-C including maths and English, against 2/3 of other pupils
Flaherty - money problems in family are significant factor in younger children’s non-attendance at school.
overcrowding, making it harder for child to study. Less room for educational activities, nowhere to do hw, disturbed sleep from sharing beds/bedroom.
families living in temporary accommodation may find themselves moving frequently, resulting in constant changes of schools ,and disrupted education.
poor hosuing has indirect effects. Children in crowded homes run a greater risk of accident, cold or damp causing ill health. Families in temp accomadiation suffer psychological distress, infections and accidents.
Diet and health
Howard - young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition affects health.
Wilkinson - among 10 year olds, lower social class, higher rate of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders. Likely to have neg child education.
Blanden and machin - children from low income families more likely to engage in ‘externalising’ behaviours (fightings) Likely to disturb schooling
fear of debt
callender and jackson - WC students are more debt adverse - saw debt negatively as something to be avoided. Saw more cost that benefits going uni.
Callander and Jackson - attitude to debt was important in deciding whether to apply to uni. Most debt averse students were over 5x more likely to apply most debt tolerant students.
Bourdieu: 3 types of capital.
knowledge, attitudes, values, languages, taste and abilities of MC.
sees MC as a type of capital, gives advantage to those who possess it
argues through their socialisation MC aquire ability to grasp, analyse and express abstract ideas.
more likely to develop intellectual intrests and understanding of what education system requires for success.
MC children an advantage in school. Such abilities + interest are highly valued and are rewarded with qualification
educational and economical capital
MC children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet demand school cirriculm and gain qualifications. Wealthier parents convert economic capital into educational capital by sending children to priavte school and paying extra tuition.
leech and campos - MC parents are more likely to be a able to afford a house in the catchment area of a school that is highly placed in the exam league tables. Known as ‘ selection by mortgage’ it drives up the cost of houses near to successful schools and excludes WC families
Durkheim: solidarity and skills
Society needs a sense of solidarity. Individ members must feel themselves to be part of a single ‘body’/community.
argues without social solidarity, social life and cooperation would be impossible, each individ would pursue their own selfish desires.
education helps to create social solidarity by transmitting society’s culture - shared belief and values - from one gen to another.
education teaches individs the specialist knowledge and skills that they need to play their part in social division of labour.
within familty, child is judged by particularistic standards. Rules that apply to a particular child. Childs status is ascribed, fixed at birth. Elder son and younger daughter may have different rights or duties.
school, universal standards. Judged by same standards. Status is achieved not ascribed. Passing and failing through individual efforts.
everyone is given an equal opportunity, and individuals achieve rewards through their own effort and ability.
David and Moore: role allocation
David and Moore - see education as a device for selection and role allocation. Focus in relationship btw education and social inequality.
inequality is necessary to ensure more important roles in society are filled by the most talented people.
education plays a key part in this process, acts a ground for ability. Education is where individs show their abilities.
educational system does not teach specialist skills adequately. Eg wolf review of vocational education claim high quality apprenticeships are are rare and up to a third of 16-19 years on courses that do nit lead to higher education or good jobs.
ample evidence evidence that equal opportunity in education does not exist. Achievement is greatly influenced by class background rather than ability.
Marxist argue education in capitalist society transmits ideology of a minority - the ruling class
Neoliberal and NR
conservative political view that incorporates neoliberal eco ideas.
central belief is that state cannot meet peoples needs, best left to meet their own need through free market.
local consumers who use the schools -pupils, parents and employers - have no say.
state education should take a ‘one size fits all’ approach, imposing uniformity and disregarding local needs.
state education system are therefore unresponsive and inefficient.
Schools that waste money or get poor results are not answerable to their consumers Means lower standards of achievement for pupils, less qualified workforce workforce and less prosperous Economy .
NR solution = marketisation of education - creating education market.
believe completion competition schools & empowering consumers will bring greater diversity, choice and efficiency to school and increase schools ability to meet needs of pupils, parents and employers.
Chubb and Moe: consumer choice
introduction of market system in state education that would control on the hands of the consumers. Argue would allow consumers to shape schools to meet their own needs and improve quality and efficiency.
Chubb and moe propose a system which family would be given a voucher to spend on buying education from a school of their choice.
would force schools to become more responsive to parents’ wishes since the vouchers would be schools main source of income.
Althusser: ideological state apparatus
repressive state apparatuses (RSAs) - maintain rule of bourgeoisie by force or threat of it. RSA include police, courts and army. Use physical coercion to redress WC.
ideological state apparatuses (ISAs) - maintain rule of bourgeoisie by controlling peoples ideas, values and beliefs. Include religion, media and educational system.
education reproduces class inequality by transmitting from generation to generation.
education Legitimates class inequality by producing ideologies that disguise its true cause. Function is to persuade workers to accept that inequality is inevitable and deserve their subordinate position in society.
Bowles and ginits: schooling in Capitalist America.
argue capitalism require a workforce with the kind of attitudes, behaviour and personality-type suited to their role as alienated and exploited workers willing to accept hard work, low pay and orders from above.
role of education in capitalism society - reproduce obedient workforce that will accept inequality as inevitable
correspondence principe and the hidden curriculum
Relationships and structures found in education mirror or correspond to those of works.
correspondence principle operates through hidden curriculum. All lessons are learnt in school without being directly taught.
schooling prepares WC pupils for their role as exploited workers of the future, reproducing the workforce capitalism needs and perperpetitating class inequality form gen to gen.
cohen - youth training schemes serve cap by teaching young workers not genuine job skills, rather attitudes and values needed in a subordinate labour force.
Willis: learning to labour
intellectual and linguistic skills
many children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation and enriching experiences, leaves them poorly equipped for school, have not been able to develop reasoning and problem-solving skills.
-> bereiter and Engelmann - language spoken by low black income families as inadequate for educational success
intellectual and linguistic skills
Some black children are socialised into a subculture that instil a fatalistic, ‘live for today’ attitude that does not value education leaving them unequipped for success.
family structure and parental support
Moynihan - many Black families headed by lone mothers, children are deprived of adequate care and struggle financially in absence of male breadwinner. Lack of father role, lack of adequate role model of male achievement.
Murray - high rate of lone parent families and lack of positive male role models lead to the underachievement of some minorities
scuton - low achievement levels of some ethnic minorities as resulting from a failure to embrace mainstream british culture.
Pryce - see family structure as contributing to underachievement of black Caribbean pupils in Britain. Claims Asians are higher achievers because culture is more resistant to racism and gives them a greater sense of self-worth. Caribbean culture = less cohesive and less resistant to racism. Black pupils have low self-esteem and underachieve.
Sewell: fathers, gangs and culture
Sewell - not the absence of fathers and role models but lack of fatherly nurturing ‘tough love’
Arnot - media inspired roles of anti school black masc ‘ultra-tough ghetto superstar, an image constantly reinforced through rap lyrics and MTV videos’.
boys are subject to powerful ani-edu peer group pressure. Most academically successful black boys felt the greatest barrier to success was from other boys
-> Indian and Chinese pupils benefit from an ‘Asian work ethic’ of families and place high value on education
Lupton - adult authority in Asian families are similar to model that operates at school. Respectable behaviour was expected, had a knock on effect at school. More likely to be supportive of school policy.
white WC families
McCulloch - ethnics are more likely to aspire to go to university that white british students
low levels of aspiration due to lack of parental support.
Lupton - studied 4 WC schools.2 white, 1 Largely pakistani, 1 mixed. White had worst levels of behaviour despite having fewer Children on FSM. Blamed on parental support and negative attitude towards education
main policy to tackle cul dep is compensatory education.
lack of psychical necessities that are normal or essential
almost half of all ethnic minority children live in low income household.
ethnic minorities are twice as likely to be unemployed compared with whites.
ethnic minority households are 3 tomes more likely to be homeless
almost half of Bangladesh and Pakistan workers earn around 7£ an hour
several reason for greater risk of material deprivation
many live in economically depressed areas within high unemployment and low wage rates
Cultural factors which prevent women from working outside the home
lack of language skills, foreign qualification not being recognised by UK employers. More likely to affect recently arrived groups, many refugees.
asylum seekers may not be allowed to take work.
racial discrimination in the labour market and hosuing market
Does class override ethnicity
modood - while children from low-income families generally did less well, effects of low income were much less for other ethnic groups than white pupils.
Racism in wider society
poverty itself is the product of racism.
rex - racial discrimination leads to social exclusion and how worsens the poverty faced by ethnic minorities.
discrimination means minorities are more likely to be forced into substandard accommodation than white people.
wood - sent 3 applications. 1 from white, 2 from ethnic min. Found one in 16 ethnic min applications were offered as an interview, against one in 9 white application.
Labelling, identies and responses.
labelling and teachers racism
studies show that teachers often see black Black and Asian pupil as being far from ‘ideal pupil’. Black often disruptive, Asian are often passive.
labels may lead teachers to treat ethnic minority pupils differently. Disadvantages them and result in failure.
black pupils and discipline
gilborn and youdell - teachers are quicker to discipline black pupils than others.
Result of ‘racial expectations’. Expect black pupils to have discipline problems and misinterpret behaviour as threatening or challenge to authority.
teachers that acted on misperception pupils respond negatively and resulted in conflict
conflict btw white teachers and black pupil stem from racial stereotype.
bourne - schools tend to see black boys as a threat, label them negatively and lead to exclusion which affects achievement.
-> osler - black pupils are likely suffer from unrecorded unofficial exclusions and ‘internal exclusions’, being sent out of class. More likely to be placed in PRU.
black pupils and streaming
negative stereotype about black pupils ability some teachers hold means they are more likely to be placed in lower sets/streams.
foster - teachers stereotypes of black pupils as badly behaved can result in them being placed in lower sets than other pupils than others who have similar abilities.
negative stereotypes about ability/behaviour can result in a self-fulfilling prophecy of underachievement.
wright - study of multi-ethnic primary school shows Asian pupils are victims of teachers labelling. Found that despite schools apparent commitment to equal opportunity, teachers held ethnocentric views
teachers assumed they would have poor grasp of english and left them out of class discussion/used simplistic language
pupils felt isolated when teachers disapproved of customs and pronounced their names wrong
archer - 3 types of pupil identities.
ideal pupil identity - white, MC, masculinised identity, ‘normal sexuality’. Achieving in the ‘right’ way, through natural ability and initiative
pathologised pupil - asain, ‘deserving poor’, feminised identity, asexual or oppressed sexuality. Seen as plodding conformist and culture-bound ‘over-achiever’, slogger who succeeds through hard work rather than natural ability.
demonised pupil identity - black/white, WC, hyper-sexualised identity. Pupil seen as unintelligent, peer-led, culturally deprived under-achiever.
archer - minority pupils who perform successfully can be pathologised (abnormal)
Chinese students were seen as having achieving success in the ‘wrong way’ - through hardworking, passive conformism rather than natural individual ability. Meaning they could never be the ‘ideal pupil’.
Pupil responses and subcultures
fuller and mac an ghaill
Fuller - study of a group of black girls in year 11 of London comprehensive school. High achievers in a school where black girls were we in low streams.
Instead of accepting negative stereotypes, girls channelled anger of being labelled into pursuit of educational success. Did not seek approval of teachers, they considered as racist. Did not limit friends to academic achievers, friends with girls in lower streams.
mac an ghaill - study of black and asain A level students. Believed teachers had labelled negatively did not accpet the label. How they responded depended on their ethnicity and gender and nature of their former schools.
some girls felt experiences of having attended an all-girls school gave them a greater academic commitment that helped them to overcome native labels at college.
label does not inevitably produce self fulfilling prophecy.
Mirza: failed strategies for avoiding racism.
3 main types of of teachers racism
colour-blind - teachers who believed all pupils are equal but in practice allow racism to go unchallenged
liberal chauvinist- teachers who believe black pupils are culturally challenged and how low expectations of them.
overt racist - believe blacks are inferior and actively discrim against them.
Sewell: variety of boys’ responses
4 responses to schooling and racism
most visible and influential group, only a small minority of black pupils.
rejected goals and rules of school and expressed opposition through peer group membership
conforming to stereotype of anti-authority, anti-school ‘black macho lad’.
believed in their own superiority based on idea that black masc = sexual experience and virility
contemptuous of white boys. Saw them as effeminate, dismissive of conformist black boys.
boys were keen to succeed, accepted schools goals and had friends from different ethnic groups.
not part of a subculture and were anxious to avoid Bering stereotyped either by teachers or peers.
tiny minority of isolated individuals
discovered from both schools and black subcultures
despised by rebels.
second largest group
pro education but anti school
value success, did not seek approval of teachers and conformed only as far as schoolwork.
distanced them from conformist and allowed to maintain credibility with rebels while remain positive about academic achievement
individual racism - result of prejudice views of individual teachers and others
institutional racism - discrim that is built into the way institutions such as schools and colleges operate.
critical race theory
sees racism as an ingrained feature of society. Involves not just intentional actions of indivdids but institutional racism.
roithmayr - institutional racism is a ‘locked-in inequality’. Scale of historical discrim is so large that there is no longer need to be any conscious intent to discrim - inequality becomes self-perpetuating ( feeds on itself)
gillborn - sees ethnic inequality as ‘so deep rooted and so large that is a practically inevitable feature of the educational system’
marketisation and segregation
gillborn - marketisation gives school more scope to select pupils. Allows negative stereotypes to influence decision about schools admissions.
Moore and Davenport - study shows how selection procedures leas ro ethnic segregation, minority pupils failing to get into better secondary schools is die to discrim.
found primary school reports were used ro screen out pupils with language difficulties, while app;Icarus on process was difficulties, application process was difficult for non-english speaking parents to understand.
procedure favoured white pupils and disadvantaged those from ethnic minority backgrounds. Leads to ethnically stratified education system.
language, literature and music - Troyna and Williams - meagre provisions for teaching Asian languages compared with European languages.
History - ball - national cirriculm fro ignoring ethnic diversity and for promoting an attitude of ‘little englandsim’. History tries to create ‘mythical age of empire and past glories.
coard - image of black people is made to feel inferior and British help civilise ‘primitive’ people they colonised therefore undermines black sel-esteem
gillborn - assessment game is rigged to validate one cultures superiority
if blacks succeed as a group the rules will be changed to re-engineer failure.
measuring pupils abilities, changed from ‘baseline assessments’ to foundation stage profile (FSP)
after change in black pupils were now doing worse than white
gillbron explain reversal as a result of
FSP based on teachers judgement. Baseline was written tests
FSP end of reception. Baseline was start of primary.
Access to oppurtunity
gifted and talented programme
created with aims of meeting aims and needs of more able pupils.
exam tiers - blacks were more likely than whites to be entered for lower tier of GSCEs. Often because they were placed in lower sets.
gillborn - white students are 2x likely to be identify as gifted and talented.
gillborn - teachers and policymakers make false assumption about the nature of pupils ‘ability’ or ‘potential’
-> see potential as a fixed quality that can be easily measured - after measured, can be put into right set/stream onto gifted and tented programme.
External factors - factors outside education system. Home, family background and wider society
Internal factors – factors within school and educational system. Pupils and teachers, inequalities between schools.