Presupposition in Pragmatic - Coggle Diagram
Presupposition in Pragmatic
Assumption about something by a speaker before uttering his utterances, which is then considered true in speech
Presupposition triggers > are frameworks or entities that indicate the presence of presuppositions. Such as cause; become; have to; force; see; hear; etc.
Types of Presuppostion triggers
Definite descriptions > presupposition which is characterized by the presence of nouns, possessives and verbs that indicate a certain existence
Factive items > presuppositions whose information can be made into facts because they are characterized by verbs such as aware, sorry and also by phrases involving aware, strange and happy.
Implicative verbs > presupposition or speech that occurs because there is an implicative verb in it. Such as manage , overlook, evade, occur
Change of state verbs > the presupposition that in the sentence there is a change in state which is indicated by the presence of several verbs such as stop, begin, continue, etc.
Iterative items > utterances that provide an explanation that there is a repeated action.
such as repeat, restore, reestablish, again, too, come back, step back, etc.
Verbs of judging > presupposition caused by the use of words for a specific purpose that is not appropriate
Temporal clauses > presupposition or in utterances containing time markers like when, after, before, as soon as, until/till, by the time, once,the moment (that), immediatel, while.
Cleft sentences > presuppositions created by the presence of cleft sentences
Implicit cleft with stress constituents > presuppositions caused by implicit words such as manage, remember, bother, get, dare, care, effort, humble, happen, see, fit, be careful, damn/mean, take the time/opportunity/problem, take it at one self
Comparative construction > presupposition caused by the existence of two different but related clauses and colored by conjunctions such as better..
Non-restrictive relative clause > presupposition marked by the presence of relative clause conjunctions such as who, when, where,
Counterfactual conditionals > presuppositions whose truth may not be true and not contradict what is true.
Questions > presupposition whose truth follows the question word that is claimed to be true
properties of presupposition
Constancy under Negation > presupposition that uses presuppositional lexical items to see whether the assumption is true or false
Defeasibility/ cancellability > assumptions that can be overturned because of the correctness of the background or inconsistent with the background assumptions
Types of Presuppositions
Lexical Presupposition > presupposition is created by emphasizing or affirming in an utterance, there are special expressions that are used to presume something else. Such as stop, start, carry on, cease, finish, leave, take, enter, begin, come, arrive,
Structural Presuppostion > presupposition that refers to the sentence structure, in which the sentence structure can be assumed to be true
Existential presupposition >utterances that contain presuppositions of ownership or assumptions that show something that exists
Factive Presuppostion > presuppositions that arise when information follows certain verbs so that it can be considered as reality.
Such as realize, be aware, regret, glad, be proud that, be sorry thay, know, be glad that, be sad that, be indifferent that
Non-Factive Presupposition > a presupposition
assumed to be untrue, words like dreaming, imagining, and pretending
Counter-factual presupposition > utterances that contain presuppositions that are not only untrue but also the opposite, or the opposite.