TOPIC 4: INSIDE THE COMPUTER - PROCESSING AND MEMORY - Coggle Diagram
TOPIC 4: INSIDE THE COMPUTER - PROCESSING AND MEMORY
...main circuit board of the computer or system unit
A computer chip is a small piece of semiconducting material (silicon)
Contains adapter cards, processor chips & memory chips
Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data.
The case contains & protects the electronics of the computer/mobile device from damage.
Small piece of semi-conducting material on which integrated circuits are etched.
Contain many microscopic pathways capable of carrying electrical.
Chips are packaged so they can be attached to a circuit board.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
...interprets & carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer.
A complex set of circuitry that executes stored program instructions.
A multi-core processor is a single chip with two or more separate processor cores.
...directs and coordinates operations in computer.
Carries out instructions that direct the computer system.
Communicates with the ALU & the memory.
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
...performs arithmetic, comparison & logical operations.
Performs all arithmetic
Performs all logical
combinations of the above (greater than & equal to)
not equal is represented by greater than or less than
Fetch - obtain program instruction/data
item from memory.
Decode - translate instruction into
Execute - carry out command.
Store - write result to memory.
CPU begins fetching second completing machine cycle for first instruction.
Results in faster processing.
...temporarily hold data & instructions
Temporary high speed storage area that holds data & instructions.
...temporary storage area built into a CPU.
some registers are used internally & cannot be accessed outside the processor, while others are user accessible.
most modern CPU architectures include both types of registers.
Control timing of all computer operations. The pace of system clock is called clock speed (gigahertz, GHz)
Generates regular electronic pulses/ticks, that set operating pace of components of system unit.
Older CPU processing speeds are in megahertz.
1 MHz = 1 million cycles per second
Current CPU processing speeds are in gigahertz.
1 GHz = 1 billion cycles per second
Workstation and mainframe speeds are measure in MIPS (millions of instruction per second)
Zero Insertion Force (ZIP) socket
Allows you to install and remove chips with no force
Lift the lever on the socket.
Insert the chip.
Push the lever down.
component with fins that cools processor
smaller device for notebook computers.
A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to malfunction or fail.
Require additional cooling
liquid cooling technology