FOREIGN POLICY (1725-1762) - Coggle Diagram
FOREIGN POLICY (1725-1762)
1733-35: War of the Polish Succession
BACKGROUND: Augustus II's death creates a succession crisis. His son, Augustus III, is backed by Austria and Russia. Leszczynski was backed by Sweden and France.
France defeated Austria on the Western Front (Rhineland and Italy).
On the Eastern Front (Poland), Russia defeated the Poles.
RESULT: Culminated in the Treaty of Vienna in 1738. Peter Lacy captured Warsaw, and Munnich captured Danzig. Leszycnski ended up exiled in France and eventually became Duke of Lorraine. Russia was heading to the Rhine - France sued for peace, and Augustus III was officially instated. RUSSIAN SUCCESS
1736-39: War with Ottoman Empire
Both sides now freed up for conflict
Russia declared war, citing Tartar raids. 1736 - Lacy captured Azov; Munnich invaded Crimea - however had to withdraw.
1737: Russia captured Ochakov, cutting Crimea off from Turkish assistance. Austria joined as an ally. However, Lacy failed to invade Crimea, and Ochakov was lost - Austria withdrew.
RESULT: 1739 - Treaties of Belgrade and Nis. Russia to keep Azov and Taganrog, but with no fortifications. All trade to be carried by Turkish shipping. Tartar issue unresolved. Hapsburg Emperor now official protector of Ottoman Christians. RUSSIAN SUCCESS - BUT SOUTHERN FRONTIER REMAINED UNRESOLVED
1726: Austro-Russian Alliance
Russia agreed to the Pragmatic Sanction.
Austria would secure Russia's borders and assist Russia against Turkey.
1740-48: War of the Austrian Succession
Maria Theresa's father, Charles VI, fought for Theresa to inherit the entirety of the Hapsburg Empire, which was eventually accepted by all major powers incl. Russia.
1740: CVI dies - FtG invades Silesia, with support of France. Britain supported MT, but Russia did not.
Bestushev, who believed Elizabeth should support MT, could not convince her, because she was a francophile.
RESULT: 1748 - Peace of Aix-La-Chapelle. Russia had signed treaties with Britain (1742) and Austria (1743), but wouldn't commit to war against France and Prussia. Russia even signed defensive agreement with Frederick. 1746/7- French victories induced Elizabeth to send troops to support MT - but too late. RUSSIA FAILURE - FREDERICK GAINED SILESIA.
1741-43: War with Sweden
France encouraged Sweden to attack Russia.
Sweden wanted to drive Russia out of Finland, and attack St. Petersburg.
Elizabeth had promised return of territory to Sweden, but once she was in power, Russia became to advance along Finnish coast and Russia captured Helsingfors (now Helsinki).
RESULT: Treaty of Abo (1743) gave more Finnish territory to Russia - more security for St. Petersburg. Sweden accepted uncle of to-be Peter III as heir to Swedish throne. RUSSIAN SUCCESS - Baltic secured, however, aided France in WAS.
1756-63: Seven Years War
BACKGROUND: Diplomatic Revolution - Austria and France had been enemies, but MT frustrated with lack of British intervention in WAS and Britain had made pact with Prussia - so MT turned to France. France alarmed by Prussia's advancements.
1756: Anti-Prussian Coalition - Austria, Russia, France, Saxony against Prussia and Britain.
August 1756: Frederick conquered Saxony - Austria and Russia retaliated, and France attacked Hanover.
1757: Battles of Rossbach and Leuthen - Prussia defeated France, and Austria, respectively. RUSSIAN FAILURE
1757: Battle of Gross-Jagersdorff - RUSSIAN VICTORY, but not followed up
1758: Battle of Zorndorff - draw
1759: Battle of Kunersdorf - RUSSIAN (and Austrian) VICTORY -leadership of Salytkov underestimated by FII; 50% of Prussian troops killed/injured/POWs - Frederick contemplated suicide.
PIII withdrew Russia from war.
RESULT: Treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris (1763). Hubertusburg - Between Austria and Prussia, FII keeps Silesia.. Latter between Britain and France, with Britain gaining colonies. RUSSIAN SUCCESS (BUT ONLY IN PRESTIGE)