4) Elizabeth - Coggle Diagram
Why was marriage a controversial issue?
For a monarch, marriage was seen as an important duty. it could be a way of cementing alliances
More importantly in Elizabeth's case, it was necessary for her to produce an heir that could succeed her on the throne
Arguments for marriage
Can create an alliance with a foreign country or guarantee the loyalty of a powerful English family
Produces an heir to continue the Tudor line and stop Mary, Queen of Scots from becoming queen when Elizabeth died
Arguments against marriage
Loss of authority
Giving birth was very risky for a mother in them times
Her experience of marriage was bad due to the relationship between her mother and father
Elizabeth was able to use the possibility of marriage to her advantage when dealing with foreign leaders and important figures in England
Why was it difficult for Elizabeth as a female ruler?
In 1562, she almost died of small pox
This drew attention to the uncertainty of England's future
As a result, senior figures were keen in getting her married as soon as possible
Possible Suitors for queen Elizabeth
King Phillip II of Spain
One of the wealthiest and most powerful men in the world
He had been married to Elizabeth's sister, Queen Mary I, but he had rarely visited England and the marriage had not produced and heir
He was Catholic therefor many were against the idea of them marrying
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
A childhood friend of the queen and a favourite of her throughout her reign. many assumed they were in love
A key figure in the royal court and a member of the Privy Council
When his wife died, he became free to marry Elizabeth but the scandal surrounding her death (and rumours of his involvement) meant this was almost impossible
Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alencon
The french kings brother and heir to his throne
By the time a marriage was proposed, Elizabeth was 46 and probably beyond having children. a childless marriage could result in England falling under French control
He was Catholic and many important figures in Elizabeth's court were against the marriage
Why was religion a troublesome issue?
The most divisive factor in Elizabethan society was religion and parliament reflected this. the majority of those in both houses of parliament were Protestants and supported Elizabeth's religious settlement
When Elizabeth wished to introduce laws that made life hard for Catholics, she found support in parliament.
One area of disagreement, however, was over the issue of Puritanism. A number of powerful Puritans in parliament tried unsuccessfully to introduce new laws to change the Church of England
Why was the marriage question significant for Elizabeth’s relations with Parliament?
Many in parliament found ti their duty to find Elizabeth a suitable husband and, by 1566, began to discuss the issue openly
Angry at such interference, she banned them from talking about it again. Elizabeth saw marriage as a decision for her alone
What did Elizabeth's settlement look like?
There were two key planks to the Elizabethan religious settlement which passed into law at the beginning of her reign
The Act of Supremacy
made elizabeth the Supreme Govenor of the church
the term 'Supreme head' was avoided because this might have been a controversial title for a woman
there was a strict prohibition for foreign leadership in the English Church, so openly denying Elizabeth's position in the church was considered treason
The Act of Uniformity
made Protestantism England's official faith and set out rules of religious practice and worship in a revisied prayerbook
this retained some Catholic traditions which Elizabeth hoped would make a good compromise and keep her people happy
Was the settlement a success?
very few refused to taketheoath of loyalty to the queen
Elizabeth had a tolerant approach which seemed to have worked on the whole, but it didn't keep everyone happy and she faced numerous threats
Oppositions came from Catholics and extreme Protestants, known as puritans, who objected to any compromise with Catholic ideas
Despite this ongoing discontent, the fact thta the settlement lasted essentially unchanged for the wholes of the queens reign indicate its strength - especially in such turbulent circumstances