Long-term causes of Spanish Civil War, - Coggle Diagram
Long-term causes of Spanish Civil War
king was head of state, and he appointed a prime minister
Elections were usually rigged or decided by corruption
No mass democratic political parties
army retained a powerful position
Real power remained in the hands of the wealthy oligarchs, and although elected by a limited section of the male population
political control shifted between different powerful cliques
The Catholic Church was wealthy and powerful in Spain
The church had used its wealth and position to gain considerable political and social influence
The church promoted social, political, and economic conservatism and it was opposed to liberal and modernizing forces.
The aristocracy and upper classes had close ties to the church
Many urban areas there were protests against the church which was resented for its association with the aristocracy and wealthy elites.
The educated middle class were also anti-clerical, promoted liberalism and wanted to limit the church’s power, specifically its control over education.
The centralist state opposed the demands for autonomy from Catalonia and the Basque regions, which wanted decentralization and independence.
there were also economic strains between the regions and the central government
Most of Spain’s key industries were concentrated in the Catalan and Basque regions, including textiles, iron, and coal industries in Catalonia, and shipbuilding in the Basque country
Between 1918 and 1921, 1,000 people were killed in protests in Barcelona alone.
agricultural economy, and agricultural labour was the main source of employment
it was highly inefficient and most agricultural work was ‘seasonal’. This meant that rural workers had to migrate to find work and the majority lived in gruelling poverty.
Spain needed economic modernization
there were also shortages and inflation that led to working-class living standards declining further. The government failed to capitalize on the war years, and in the early 1920s there were major economic problems. Working-class militancy had grown and in industrial cities in Catalonia there were violent confrontations.
There was a Liberal movement in Spain, mainly supported by the educated middle classes. It remained a political force in Spain in the 1920s
In the late 19th century the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE, Spanish Socialist Party) had developed in urban areas in the late 19th century, but had limited impact. However, its trade union, the UGT was active.
The more moderate Socialists were led by Indalecio Prieto, and the more radical group were led by Largo Caballero.
There was also a small Spanish Communist party that had been founded after the Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917.
In addition to the socialists, as you have already seen, the anarchists were a major political group in Spain.
The anarchists were popular in the countryside due to their demand for the redistribution of land and they also had established trade unions in some Spanish cities. The anarchists trade union was active in organizing strikes and protests.
A more extreme anarchist faction, called the Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI, Spanish Anarchist Federation), carried out bombings and assassinations. The anarchists would not engage in any democratic processes and called for revolution.