Fractures 1661703244837 - Coggle Diagram
According to Mogotlane et al(2015) it is a break of the continuity of the bone because of trauma, disease or pressure.
From a blow or crash (MVA)
Unintended violence (falls)
From sports and occupation injuries.
Osteoporosis in elderly women
Metastasis in malignances
It's when the continuity of a bone breaks, this result into periosteum being stripped off I the bone and ts blood vessels
The bone edges may damage the tissues around it.
Blood vessels may also be damaged, that results in severe bleeding. A hematoma may form causing the area to be swollen.
Types of fractures
-it's a clear break of a bone, broken parts are usually displaced.
closed or simple fracture
-the bone is broken into two parts, there's no break on skin.
-the bone is broken completely and there's a wound that opens exterior.
-there are many fragments at the point of the break, resulting from a crash.
-it's when the vertebral column has been compressed as a result from a fall from a height in an upright position.
-applies to the skull where a blunt blow causes a dent that presses on the brain substance.
-it's when the bone fragment slips over the other fragment.
-happens in children where the one side breaks while the other side is bent.
-related to a disease and can occur without trauma.
Closed reduction or manipulation.
Open reduction internal fixation.
Assessment and common findings
Oedema and swelling resulting from injured tissues and blood vessels
Pain and tenderness resulting from muscle spasms.
Loss of function resulting from disturbed normal structure.
Deformity resulting from unnatural position of the bone.
Discoloration resulting from bleeding.
Crepitation resulting from palpable and audiable crunching sounds as a result of the crunching of bone fragments.
Altered comfort and activity tolerance related to the fracture evidence by a patient verbalising an experience of pain.
Potential for fat embolism related to the fracture.
Risk of infection related to injury and immobility.
Assess and determine the extent of pain in a pain scale of 1-10
Immobalise the fractured bone and maintain alignment to reduce pain and prevent further damage.
Administration of analgesia, anti inflammatory drugs and antibiotics.
Monitor vital signs and not any deviation from normal.
Apply aseptic techniques when giving pain and wound care.
Apply traction to provide support and reduce swelling.
Do careful neuro Vascular assessment using 5 P's.
Bone scan or X-ray
History taking and physical examination
FBC, coagulation studies
It commences after injury and continues until healing has taken place.
Measures like mobilization are done to ensure the bone retains its normal anatomical position.
Muscles and joints should be exercised to restore and maintain full function.
A prosthesis may be used if the extremity had to be amputated.
Complications of fractures
Painful post-traumatic osteoporosis
Mogotlane,S., Chauke, M., Matlakala, M., Mokena, J.&Young,A.(2015). Management of specific disorders of masculo-skeletal systems. Bone fracture . Jutas complete textbook of medical surgical nursing, page:915-919. Capetown.