CHAPTER 5: RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 5: RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruiting and selecting people to fill new or existing positions is a crucial element of human resource activity
It is important for organizations to consider how they can approach recruitment and selection to increase the likelihood of a successful appointment/decision and in a cost effective manner
The notion of ‘fit’ between the individual and the organization
Skills involved in the
recruitment and selection process
The recruitment and selection process
The skills required
Evaluation of the vacancy
Drafting the criteria
the process of generating a pool of candidates from which to select the appropriate person to fill a job vacancy
Recruitment is a dynamic process as within organizations people are constantly retiring, resigning, being promoted or, at times, being dismissed
A document that outlines the purposes of the job, the task involved, the duties and responsibilities, the performance of objectives and the reporting relationships. It will give details of the terms and conditions, including the remuneration package and hours of work
Provide clear information to candidates about the organization and the job itself
offering a realistic description of the nature of the job
the process of collecting, analysing and setting out information about the contents of jobs in order to provide the basis. for a job description and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and performance management
provide a profile of the ‘ideal’ person for the job
On the other hand the desirable criteria are those things which are considered over and above the minimum and should provide the basis for selection
2 most important person specification models
Rodger seven-point plan
Munro Fraser five-fold grading system
Impact on other people
Qualifications and experience
Innate abilities and aptitude
The ‘ideal’ front-line tourism and hospitality employee
‘right’ attitude and appearance
the ability to either ‘look good’ or ‘sound right’
The skills that matter to employers in customer facing staff in tourism and hospitality are generally then ‘soft’, including aesthetic skills
how organizations can attract the interest of appropriate potential employees
there may be a choice as to whether the organization looks to somebody within the organization or
alternatively looks to the external labour market
the importance of advertising and media
Another source of recruitment is increasingly the Internet
a key aspect of recruitment and selection was cost effectiveness
and systematic view of each candidate via five stages
Essential criteria for shortlisting
Individual selectors produce their own list of a given number of candidates.
Selectors reveal list and try to reach consensus, if still not clear
Discuss why certain candidates are preferred and others not.
Produce final shortlist after negotiation and compromise.
the process of assessing job applicants using one of a variety of methods with the purpose of finding the most suitable person for the organization
The first idea is that the selection process is a two-way process.
Selection is in fact a two-way process, because people
have the option to pull out of the process or turn down a job
The first method,
which is the most popular, is that of interviewing.
the interview is usually the central element of the selection process in many tourism and hospitality organizations
the most straightforward and least expensive approach
4 objectives of interview
To decide if an applicant is suitable for a job.
To decide if the person will fit into the existing work group or organization as a whole.
To attract applicants to the job
To communicate essential expectations and requirements of the job.
the interview process is about gathering information which allows for an evaluation of the appropriateness of the individual for a particular job
Recognizing this point
there are several things which should be recognized in interviewing
Interviewers should only talk around 20 per cent of the time, the remaining
time should be filled by interviewees
Open questions are more useful, so questions starting with what, why, when,
which and how can be very useful to elicit information from candidates
Interviewers recognize and like candidates from similar backgrounds to them,in terms of things like social class and educational background.
It is estimated that interviewers often make their decision within the first 4–9 min of an interview
Interviewers are vulnerable to prejudices with regard to aspects such as sex, race and age.
Interviewers are affected by physical cues, for example spectacles equals greater intelligence.
Interviewers need to be aware of the ‘halo’ or ‘horns’ effect, when either in a positive or negative manner, some trait or personal characteristic influences or overwhelms all other thoughts.
There is a need to recognize the importance of non verbal communications, or
what is commonly described as body language
the use of tests and psychometric testing
These tests are used to
measure individual difference in aptitude, ability, intelligence or personality
Organizations are increasingly using these types of tests, particularly for managerial positions
Other methods which could be used by tourism and hospitality organizations include things like presentations.
One final method is the socalled in-tray exercise
simulate an in-tray of a manager and the applicant has to go through the tray and make decisions on the problems that they find.
the last method of selection, the assessment centre, which ordinarily refers to a process rather than a physical centre.
Validity can be seen in three different ways
First, face validity on refers to the issue of whether the selection procedure was seen to be valid to candidate and tester.
Second, predictive validity is concerned with whether the outcome selection able to predict the ability to perform effectively when in post.
Lastly, content validity is about ensuring that the test or
exercise in assessing certain skills is actually relevant to the job in question.
On the one hand this may simply mean employing people on the basis of word of mouth or because they responded to an advert in the window of a restaurant
On the other hand it may be the culmination of a lengthy and expensive selection process, particularly for managerial and graduate-level positions.