Raskin1985 - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 3 Semantic theory
Characteristics of the theory
It is this theory, with its strong
emphasis, which has been found to be applicable to the analysis of humor, unlike its predecessors in semantics which were largely limited to the meaning of the sentence in isolation.
Raskin's script-based lexicon 將分析時所需之extralinguistic knowledge降低
...according to the meaning-in-isolation point of view, practically
every sentence is ambiguous
while in real discourse it would be easily and unnoticeably disambiguated by the context... (p.63)
PTT data難以用formal semantics解釋
Every sentence is uttered in context, including imaginary one. Hearers also use their previous experience to facilitate sentence comprehension. If the above has not been accessible, the sentence will be incomprehensible.
Normally the speaker's
coincides with the hearer's obvious context. (p.63) That is, what speakers' context of utterance is determines what the utterance means. And hearer knows what the context is as well so he interprets the utterance by the same context as does the speaker. So they can communicate.
What affects obvious context?
Which of the two becomes the obvious context
depends on a number of factors concerning the speakers' personal background and experience, their idiolect, and their most recent encounters
with the objects or events referred to in the sentence.
is thought by Raskin to be closely related to obvious context (p.64)
The issue of the obvious context as well as that of the setting theory raise the important problem of the boundary between the knowledge of language and the knowledge of the world between
The boundary between knowledge of language and knowledge of the world
The former kind of knowledge is assigned to the proper domain of
while the latter is delegated to
1 more item...
Problem of formal linguistic theory
Only match the speaker's competence with respect to a particular pre-selected feature
What feature(s) do we have in semantics?
The first formal semantics by
Katz and Fodor (1963)
are based on three features:
They suggested four abilities that semantic theory should account for.
Katz and Fodor =>
According to Katz and Fodor, in order to construct such a semantic theory a complete theory of settings would be necessary, and the latter would require a structured and formalized description of all the knowledge the speakers have about the world
The goal of the semantic theory proposed by Raskin
To account for the meaning of every sentence in every context it occurs.
It recognizes the existence of the boundary between our knowledge oflanguage
2. Elements of contextual semantics
學人家: The format of Katz and Fodor's semantic theory includes the dictionary and
the projection rules.
Book title: Semantic Mechanism of Humor