Foundations of Clinical Bioethics - Coggle Diagram
Foundations of Clinical Bioethics
Major ethical theories
Consequentialist theories (Utilitarian)
Weighing posible consequences to determine the best outcomes
Deontological theories (Kantian)
Decisions based on rules (obligationist)
Whatever you think is right is right for you and whatever everyone things is right for them is right (lol, it's not hehe)
If you really are relativist you can't tell anyone else what is right or wrong.
Everyone has accurate intuitions of what is right and wrong
These theories help you to identify, organize and resolve the types of ethical issues you face in medicine
Opinions vs. Positions
Glad we all have opinions. Doesn't care what they are. Doesn't feel like anyone else should care what they are. What he does care about is if we have a position on the things. A reason why and a what blind what we are trying to articulate.
Rational vs. Rationalizing
Rationalizing is coming to a conclusion without basis on facts or evidence
Rational analysis is based on facts.
Ethical principles fundamental in medicine
Autonomy - Respect of persons (informed consent)
Beneficence - Promoting positive benefits while minimizing harms
Justice - treating similar cases in a similar manner
In medicine, 98% of the time following the rules works just right for the situations. 2% of the time they won't and we need to make and ethical decision. (hypothetical numbers)
Medicine is not value neutral.
There are also obligations that we are supposed to follow.
We believe that illness is caused by physiological issues. We believe that we can figure out what the source is through science. That is a value in medicine
General Method for analyzing ethical problems in medicine
Identify the problem - if more than one ethical problem is present, be careful to separately and clearly identify each ethical problem
Critical analysis - look at the arguments for and against certain resolutions
Framing Effect - How you frame the issue provides bias. ie. Does mentioning race matter in most explanations of patients?
Dunning-Kruger Effect - We tend not to recognize the limits of our knowledge
Confirmation Bias - We favor ideas that confirm our existing beliefs
Optimism/Pessimism Bias - The tendency to overestimate the likelihood of positive outcomes (especially when in a good mood)
Peer Pressure Bias - The tendency to confirm or agree with a group, even when we know the group is wrong