The Need for Psychology Science - Coggle Diagram
The Need for Psychology Science
Errors on how people examine situations
Perceive patterns in random events
The Scientific Method
Theory: Integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predict behavior
A good theory: Leads to predictions, Stimulates research and may be replicated.
Hypothesis: Testable perdiction
Experiment: Tests the hypothesis by collecting data and to get the result.
Replication: Repeated study but with different participants in different situations.
Systematic, objective observation of people.
1) Case study: Examine and individual in depth , provide ideas and cannot be generalize conclusions.
2) Natural Observation: Record behavior in natural environment, describes but does not explain behavior.
Survey and interview
Random sampling: makes research less biased
How two things are related to each other but not causing each other.
Positive Correlation: Two things increase or decrease together.
Negative correlation: As one thing increase the other decreases.
Correlation coefficient: measure of how closely thing scary together.
Variable: Anything that can vary and is able to be measured.
Scatterplot: A graphed cluster of dots that represent the value of two things.
Illusory correlation: the perception of a relationship between two variables.
Regression towards the mean: Extreme fall back toward the average.
Experimentation: Test by manipulating certain factors to get results.
Double blind procedure: Only the researcher knows about the study. To eliminate bias.
Placebo effect: To have two groups one with the actual test and the other with nothing to test the actual results.
Independent variable: Factor manipulated, effect being studied.
Dependent variable: factor that is measured, factor may change when the independent variable is manipulated.
Confounding variable: Factor other than the independent that might produce the effect.
BPS: British Psychological society, guidelines for natural living conditions.
APA: American Psychological Association, guidelines for humane treatments.
Ethics codes of APA and BPS
1) Take consent
2)Protect participant from harm
3) Keep participants information confidential
4) Fully debrief people
Measure of central tendency
Mean: Adding scores and dividing by their sum
Mode: most frequent occurring score
Median: middle score of distribution after rearranging them
Measure of variation
Range: difference between the highest and lowest scores
Standard deviation: measure of how scores vary around the mean score
Normal curve: symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of data