Unit 1- Overview of leadership - Coggle Diagram
Unit 1- Overview of leadership
disloyal behavior shown towards the organization. manipulative/ selling something unpleasant.
Negative impact on organizational resources, organizational processes slowing down, higher rates of sick and stress leave, massive resistance to change.
Leadership and Personality: Trait theories
- 10 types of leaders
Based on certain mentality - subordination of individual goals to fundamental principles that guarantee stability and strength.
Membership in the elite- therefore leadership is a divine right and legitimate.
Contrasting to aristocrats and monarchy - leadership being acquired by accomplishments.
Autocratic/ Paternal Orientation:
Head of the family- made all the decisions regarding the life and death of family members and slaves.
Focused on the emotional well-being of the members of the society. Empathetic leadership is practiced.
Beliefs of Confucianism:
Leadership is based on the virtue of wisdom(quality of being wise), integrity(strong moral principles), benevolence(kindness), courage, and discipline.
Leadership as a Skill: Attribute and Behavior Theories
Attribute/ Trait Theory: Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton
- Ability to lead is based on certain attributes, skills, talents which can be inherited i.e. leaders are born, not made.
Behavioral Theory: Stodgill and Mann-
Discovered people who were leaders in certain situations were not necessarily leaders in others. Concluded - successful leadership is based on actions and not on individual attributes of a person.
is an individual acting in a complex system. displaying distinct behavioral patterns that arise out of the demands of the situation.
Research by Lewin, Lipitt and White:
Analyzed the influence of different behavioral pattern on performance in 1939.
Leaders explained the projects but allowed the boys to make their own decision - most successful.
Leaders told the boys what to do and didn't explain any comments they made to the boys - led to extreme aggression.
leaders left the boys to their own devices - group members no longer identifying with their task.
Different behavioral patterns rather than individual traits were seen to create different leadership conditions that result in vastly different outcomes. - Leading is seen as an activity where situation- appropriate complex behavioral patterns will be displayed.
Positive Reinforcement: Behavioral Techniques:
Discovered by B. F Skinner
- Father of behavioral modification through learning in 1930.
Positive reinforcement takes places
when a positive response follows as a reaction to a specific behavior.
Leadership: Situational Approaches
Leadership is an event connected to a specific situation.
Individual is perceived as a leader based on the situation, responsibilties and action of the leader.
Correlation between effective leadership and individual traits
such as intelligence, attitude, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to new experiences, and general self-efficacy.
Concentrate on a small group of attributes
and neglect cognitive skills, motives, values, social competence, expertise and problem solving abilities.
Do not consider that behavioral patterns
result from a combination of different individual aspects.
Do not differentiate between general attributes and attributes
that are coupled with situational circumstances.
Ignore to what extent certain attributes or behavior variations are necessary for successful leadership.
Situational and Contingency Theories
formulated that situations influence people and not the other way around.
Different situations require different attributes
and that there is neither a single optimal leadership technique nor a set of personal attributes for an individual to assume in order to be considered a leader.
Leadership depends on the characteristics of the situation in which it is to be exercised.
Authoritative leadership style works best when coping with a crisis.
Democratic management - situations when a consensus is necessary - attempting to convince or win over employees.
- great deal of freedom and enough space for experimentation and flexible organization.
Four main leadership theories
Fiedler's contingency model
Focuses on a phenomenon that he calls situational contingency. This stems from interaction between leadership style and situational favorability. The theory defines two types of leaders:
Those that tend to solve the task by developing a good relationship with the group.
Those that focus on accomplishing the task.
No ideal leader - both task and relationship oriented leaders can be effective when their leadership style fits the situation.
Vroom- Yetton decision model
Proposed by Victor Vroom, Phillip Yetton, and Arthur Jago. Leadership behavior should be based on a normative decision model
which defines which approach is most suited to the situation i.e. the leader should decide how to lead their subordinates based on the specific situational circumstances.
Path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness
Developed by House in 1971.
According to House- In order to be effective leaders should influence their subordinates in such a way that develop skills and abilities that complement the resolution of the situation and possibly compensate for existing deficiencies in managing it.
Identifies four types of leadership behavior
Directive leader behavior
Participative leader behavior
Supportive leader behavior
Can be identified as a contingency model as well as transactional model.
Blake- Mouton's Managerial Grid Model
Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton- based on behavioral theory.
suggested five leadership styles
that are based on the factors of employee orientation and task orientation.
High concern for people. low concern for production
Low concern for people, low concern for production
Adequate balance between concern for people and production
Low concern for people, high concern for production
High concern for people, High concern for production
Theory of Functional Leadership Behavior
Based on the assumption that managers are expected to behave in a way that facilitates organizational efficiency.
Success of an organization depends on the effectiveness and cohesion of the group.
Leadership is an individual variable that strengthens group cohesion and goal orientation
and is separate from organizational leadership which provides role clarity and reduces insecurity.
Two primary behaviors are expected of managers: testing existing structures and creating supportive structures that facilitate task fulfillment.
Integrated Psychological Theory
Attempt to integrate the strengths of older theories and expand these by adding a new element:
the ongoing personal development of leaders.
Old theories only offer limited support in developing a person's ability to lead effectively
. None of these theories explained how leadership presence, inspiring others, gaining trust, etc. can be achieved.
in which a leader has to maneuver to refine their leadership behavior, the group's productivity, and the goals of the organisation.
Public and Private leadership
Refer to behavioral levels.
Designating the four dimensions of leadership. A shared motivating group purpose, measures of progress and results, collective unity or team spirit, and individual selection and motivation.
Refer to the internal state of an individual which can be developed in order to have a stronger leadership role and greater presence, know-how, and aptitude.
Consists of two aspects:
Technical know-how and ability
Developing the correct attitude towards others
Transactional and Transformative Leadership
stated that the
transactional leader assigns certain tasks and rewards the achievement of objectives or sanctions employees for non-performance.
Management by objectives
is characteristic of transactional leader.
Leaders are role models who convey connection, challenge employees to think critically, coach them to encourage good performance, and strive to align the employee goals and objectives.
Leadership as an Emotionally Charged Process
Leadership can be seen as an
emotionally charged process
in which emotions and social influences are linked.
These effects on employees can be seen on three level
Mood of the individual employee is influenced by the leaders and their attitude.
This is called
The affective tone of the group influences the mood of the employees.
The group dynamic processes resulting from mutual tasks, efforts, and goals all influence feelings.
The ability to understand one's own moods and feelings and interpret those of others correctly in order to create a climate of effective and respectful leadership in the organisation.
Leadership mainly takes place through the transmission or organization of information about leaders and their behavior, and not through the actual actions of the leaders.
This information about leaders
informs how subordinates perceive their leadership.
The depictions of leaders are often politically motivated and does not necessarily represent the true skills of the leader.