The Scientific Process - Coggle Diagram
The Scientific Process
Science is about establishing truths
Scientific research should be objective - independent of beliefs or opinions.
So the methods used should be empirical - based on data, not just theory. The best way to make sure of this is to carry out an experiment that collects qualitative data and has strictly controlled variables.
This means that you should be able to replicate the research, and also to establish cause and effect.
Science Answers real life questions and tests hypothesis
Ask a question - make an observation and ask why or how it happens
Suggests an answer, or part of an answer, by forming a theory
Make a prediction or hypothesis - a specific testable statement, based on the theory, about what will happen in a test situation
Carry out a test - to provide evidence that will support the hypothesis
Science is all about testing theories
The results are published - scientists need to let others know about their work, so they try to get their results published in scientific journals.
Other scientists read the published theories and results, and try to repeat them - this involves repeating the exact experiments, and using the theory to make new predictions that are tested by new experiments
If all the experiments in all the world provide evidence to back it up, the theory is thought of as scientific 'fact'
If new evidence comes to light that conflicts with the current evidence, the theory is questioned all over again. More rounds of testing will be carried out to see which evidence, and so which theory, prevails.
Popper Argued that theories should be falsifiable
Popper argued that theories are abstract, so it's impossible to prove them right through empirical research
Instead, he claimed that a theory is scientific if it's falsifiable - if it can be proved wrong. So, every test of a theory should be an attempt to falsify it
This sounds a bit weird, but if you think about a non-scientific psychological theory then you can see how it fits. For example, Freud's psychodynamic explanation of gender development is non-falsifiable - you can't prove it wrong because it's based on the unconscious mind
People with untreated mental health disorders may need more time off work
People suffering from conditions like depression or OCD which aren't being treated may need to take more time off work than those who are receiving treatment.
Treatments for mental health disorders come about as a result of psychological research, and can help people continue a normal lifestyle, such as going to work. Less time off work is better for the economy.
Research into sleep behaviour can help shift workers
Modern work patterns mean some people work shifts throughout the 24-hour period, disrupting their sleep cycle
The employees had previously worked a backwards rotation - working during the nights for the first week, late afternoons in the second week and only mornings during the third week. They would then restart the pattern again in the fourth week
After implementing the changes, productivity and job satisfaction increased
More productive workers lead to a better economy