How does politics influence the establishment of educational (in)equity…
How does politics influence the establishment of educational (in)equity and the priorities of teaching and learning throughout the history of schooling in the United States?
Standardized methods of instruction
John Dewy and Progressive Education
ELL students considered unintelligent based on subjective testing
English only Policies
Education determined on Ethnicity/Race Class
Manual Training and Industrial Education
Boarding Schools for Native Americans
Mexican Americans Being pushed into Labor and Trade positions
People of low educational background being put into more hazardous positions in the military
Mexican American/Latinos being denied the opportunity to take pre-collegiate classes
GI's Returning from war
La Raza Cosmica
”Each of these nations is fully Latino, flowing with mixed blood, the Spanish tongue and, at times, intermixed with indigenous languages.”
Hispanic and Census
Hispanics being split by Census
Force fitting between White and Black
History of Latinos in the U.S. Book
Black Mexican and Native Americans were not only being subjugated but their Civil Rights were being violated on a regular basis.
Dual Systems of Education
Parallel Education occurring within U.S. between non- Whites and Common beliefs of the dominant society
"Separate but equal" : Long term dominating system
" The curriculum" Progressive way of learning and teaching
What schools were like, texts books, teachers, students
African American education in America
Segregation in Schools
Why Schools were started
Developing Strong skills
Habits of inquiry
"Participatory, affective, problem-posing, situated, multicultural, dialogic, de-socializing, democratic, researching, interdisciplinary, and activist”
Argues the challenge is for educators to focus on the fundamental issues for the establishment of a culturally democratic foundation for a critical bicultural pedagogy in the classroom”
False Generosity: "Generosity" oppressors must perpetuate injustice as well b/c of their beliefs
Sub Oppressors: Oppressed groups who become oppressors themselves
Having a Colonized mentality
Awareness of complicit ways people over valued certain language practices and values, along with how they walk talked and dressed
Capitalist, Racist, classists, sexists ideologies
Domination and subordination to systems of Opression
Teachers committed to themselves spiritually, emotionally, and physically in their own well-being in order to be able to properly educate students in liberating ways.
Teaching in a way that promotes own-well being
Culture Circles of CP Souto-Manning
Discourse & Identities
Student discourse about their identity
Challenging pre determinations and implementing new strategies of action
Focus of relevant themes and strengths and knowledge from familiar experiences.
Dialogical, Critical and, Political Spaces
Making learning memorable and relevant
Take away the ideas of conventional classroom teaching
Connect with students on other levels in order to be vulnerable and to express to them how their lived experienced are valuable to their education
4 Aspects of Critical Pedagogy
.Critical pedagogy is grounded in a social and educational vision of justice, equality, and the belief that education is inherently political.
: Teaching students to become critical thinkers is key to having them understand various perspectives as well as learn the tools and strategies they need to recognize and challenge the status quo.
. Critical pedagogy is based on generative themes.
:teachers must embrace the fluidity of the roles of teacher and learner (Friere,1970)
Critical pedagogy is dedicated to the alleviation of human suffering, takes first-hand knowledge into consideration, and prevents students from being blamed for failing..
: Alleviating oppressive situations, poer over and recurring oppression.
If the student is having challenges learning it is b/c there is a larger issue surrounding the situation.
. Teachers position themselves as ethnographers, learning from observation, coding the information collected, and employing learning in their new plans.
A teaching approach that affirms students diversities and considers students' perspectives.
Starting with what students know
understanding issues that are truly important to them in their out-of-school lives
Being able to engage all students in naming the issues and engaging in problem-posing education.
Problem Posing Education:
a method of teaching that emphasizes critical thinking for the purpose of liberation
Historical Accounts of Culture Circles
Freire taught 300 people to read and write in three months.
"Freire drew plans for 20, 000 culture circles to involve 2 million people by 1964" (Souto-Manning)
Freire's culture circles became so powerful that they came to be seen as a threat to the military government.
Freire's culture circles were dismantled soon after the coup d'tetat of the Brazilian government.
Freire's Popular culture movement (PCM)
Culture Circles have contributed to the development of agency by thousands of people since their inception in the 1960's (Freire, 2000)
CC:Words and Worlds
Two tenants of Culture circles
Dialogue in the process of education
The importance of using knowledge and education as tools for social change
Generative themes and the use of representation on classrooms as well as how dialogue can help the transformation of problem solving
Using prior experience and identifying participant in a specific and positive way.
High Stakes Testing and Standardization of Curriculum
School Desegregation / Integration
The aims of the system were to award children based on their ability and to help break down some of the class barriers that existed in society, as bright children from working class backgrounds could theoretically win a place at a grammar school
The system led to the reproduction of class inequality – typically middle class students passed the 11+ and went to grammar schools, got qualifications and higher paid jobs, and vice-versa for the working classes
"The rule of law had expanded as common knowledge on how communities were to behave and accordingly respond. Nomenclature was that schools with “Spanish or Mexican” children, for example, were called “Mexican,” whereas White children were simply known as “American.” As schools were identified by type of student, labels denoting race sufficed to denote the rank and importance for any school under review"
Traditional Dual systems transformed into tripartite systems by 1900,
Plesssy and racial minorities being left out
LULAC members fighting for equal opportuniites
Agricultural need more important than education importance. Child labor laws not enforced
Tired System of Education
3 claims from book in support of demonstrating a Tiered System
.....What are the effects of a tiered system of education?
Classism & Social Hegemony affecting Careers/ Higher education
Bilingual Education and Educational Achievement in Latinos
Loss of Identity through Deculturalization and Assimilation
Two tiered schools
schools tend to come from homes with financial struggles and fewer resources. All but guarantees that this division of knowledge and power will persist.(2022, Psychreg Ltd)
Regular’ public schools who struggle to ‘make the grade’ and are often seen as falling short of expectations. Their students do not perform as well on high stakes testing and present with challenging behavioral issues. (2022, Psychreg Ltd)
schools tend to receive a better education. Tier One schools – through various incentive programs – receive more funds and have more resources (2022, Psychreg Ltd)
Charter, magnet, choice, and private schools. Generally, these schools are recognized as doing a great job of educating their students.(2022, Psychreg Ltd)
Started with race/ethnicity and classism and eventually molded into choice, opportunity and accesablity.
Latinos in the U.S. have endured many aspects of an un equitable tiered system in education that has significantly affected their identity, their professions, as well as their overall success and inclusion in American society.
Why does this matter?
It matters because not only is it offering a less than an ideal outlook for Latinos in America but it is undeniably going against the phrase " Liberty and Justice for all " as far as education and opportunity goes. All citizens deserve equitable education and the freedom to choose .
Critical Pedagogy Articles
ORANGE: Module 1
BLUE: Module 2
PINK: Module 3
Quest for Educational Freedom
Deculturalization of Ethnic minority groups through Education
Systems of Oppression