The Republic of Salo: Mussolini in prison at Gran Sasso, a high and isolated mountain range (Aug), 12 Sept: rescued by German commandos, taken to Germany. 13 Sept: met with Hitler, who insisted Mussolini return Italy to form a new government (or he’d destroy Milan, Genoa, Turin). Returned and established capital at Gargano, Lake Garda. Italian Socialist Republic (RSI) was a puppet-state of Germany. Government bodies spread 100 miles across Northern Italy (to reduce its effectiveness) and officials appointed by Germany. Had to pay Germany 7bn lira a month. Foreign Ministry based at town of Salo - so became known as the Salo Republic. Mussolini created a cabinet of radical fascists, mostly blackshirts purged in the 1920s. Nov: first congress of new fascist party at Verona, drew up Manifesto (based on 1919 Programme): anticlerical republic, nationalised industry, corporate state - policies not put in place. Brutal tactics: 5 fascists involved in resolution that removed Mussolini were arrested and executed (inc. Ciano) in Jan 1944, and 13 others sentenced in absence (inc. Grandi); helped Germans send 7,500 Jews to German concentration camps, 7000 killed (Verona Manifesto - Jews enemy); new militia formed - National Republican Guard (GNR) - by 1944 had 200,000 men, 20,000 men in navy, airforce of 28,000 (total of 573,000 in GNR forces). Brutal war in north: Italian antifascists (partisans) v. German and RSI forces, general population terrorised, for every German soldier killed, 10 Italians executed - 10% of civilian executions carried out by RSI.