Couples - Coggle Diagram
The traditional nuclear family has clearly defined roles.
- Instrumental Role
Breadwinner: successful in work to support the family financially, and is generally taken by the husband.
- Expressive Role
Is their for primary socialisation and is taken by the wife.
Are couples more equal?
'March of progress' view - things are improving and becoming more equal over time.
- Sullivan (2000) - increase in symmetrical families - equal distribution on domestic labour.
- British Social Attitudes Survey (2013) - in 1984, 45% of men and 41% of women agreed with gendered instrumental and expressive roles. But in 2012 it was 13% men and 12% women.
Feminist View - women going to work has not led to greater equality. But women now suffer from the duel burden and have to do both paid work and domestic labour.
- How much do men do in 2021?
. 66% of girls do more cooking than boys (31%)
. 69% of girls do more cleaning than boys (58%)
. 52% of girls do more household shopping than boys (49%)
. 67% leading home learning compared with 52% men
How much do men contribute to childcare?
- Dex and Ward (2007) - 1% of fathers took the main responsibility for caring for a sick child.
- Braun et al (2011) - most fathers are 'background fathers' with 'provider ideology'
How much do men organise family 'quality time'?
- Hochschild (2013) - women are required to perform 'emotional work'.
- Duncombe & Marden (1994) - women have to undertake the triple shift: paid work, house work and emotional work.
Explaining the gender division of labour
- Cultural/ Ideological Explanation
. Women's roles are determined by patriarchal norms
. Gershuny (1994) - people whose parents shared domestic work are more likely to
equally divide housework themselves.
. Dunne (1999) - lesbian couples have a more equal relationship due to the
absence of 'gendered scripts'
- Material/ Economic Explanation
. women tend to work part-time so have time for housework/ childcare
. Ramos (2003) - where the woman is the breadwinner and men do more
. Sullivan - part-time Vs full-time work makes the difference in dividing tasks.
Parsons & New Right - the nuclear family roles are based on natural biological differences.
- Women are naturally nurturing
- Men are naturally competitive
provides stability for the household
- allocation of roles are not natural or biological - socially constructed
- Restricts female individuality and desires
- Women's financial dependency can result in physical and psychological abuse.
Roles in Family Types
Joint and Segregated Conjugal Roles - Bott
Segregated - where the man is the breadwinner and women are the homemakers. Leisure activities also tend to be separate.
Joint - where the couples share tasks like housework or childcare and spend leisure time together as well.
Evaluation - Young & Willmott identified a pattern of segregated conjugal roles in their study of WC extended families in 1950. Men were the breadwinners playing little part in home life, spending leisure time with workmates at pubs. Women spent all their time being housewives and had limited leisure as they would liekly spend it with their children.
The Symmetrical Family - Young & Willmott
They take a 'march of progress view' to the history of the family. And believe life is gradually getting better, becoming more equal and democratic. Men and women have a similar roles.
Evaluation - Over-egsagerated and not true
Instrumental and Expressive Role - Parsons & New Right
Women are naturally nurturing and men are naturally competitive, this provides stability.
Evaluation - the nuclear family roles are based on natural and biological differences.
Dark Side of the Family
What is domestic abuse?
'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who or have intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality.'
Can include psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional violence and abuse.
. Women are more likely to be victims of domestic violence.
. In 2016 the gap is starting to decrease.
- Women's Aid Foundation - Domestic violence is widespread
- Coleman and Osborne (2020) - two women per week are killed by a partner or a former partner.
- Office for National Statistics (2020) - 2.3 million adults aged 16 -74 experienced domestic abuse
. Women - 1.6 million
. Men - 757,000
.conronavirus: domestic abuse offences increased during the pandemic
Domestic violence is the result of economic and material inequalities such as housing and income.
Wilkinson & Pickett (2010)
- domestic violence caused by stress from social inequality leads to a higher risk of conflict
. Money, job and housing worries raise stress
. Lack of money and time reduces social support resulting in more stress
- Wilkinson and Pickett do not explain why women are more likely to be victims
- Domestic violence is a product of capitalism
. male workers are exploited at work and take out their frustrations on their wives
- Ansely (1972) - women are 'the takers of shit'