Timeline events leading to 1949 that create mistrust between countries…
Timeline events leading to 1949 that create mistrust between countries occupying Germany
: Allies signed the Declaration on Liberated Europe. Expect this, nothing agreed in Yalta was not agreed in previous conferenced
: This agreement would eventually cause mutual distrust, as Stalin will control of eastern european countries
Yalta creates even greater distrust between Big Three, as they postpone the discussions for post-war Germany --> this delay creates more tensions in Europe
International Monetary Fund
was set up (with US cash) in december 1945 'to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade' → new age of open commerce.
Currencies would become convertible, reference currency: US dollar.
Would hope that this increase in trade would overcome mistrust.
The USSR announced it was not joining this Union abruptly → US did not expect or believe the Soviet confrontation --> different views in the post-war economy in Europe and internationally
Kennan’s Long Telegram
(feb. 1946) → the first significant move in America's acknowledgement of the coming confrontation.
Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech
Churchill stressed the necessity for the United States and Britain to act as the guardians of peace and stability against the menace of Soviet communism
Marshall Plan (start April 1948)
a US sponsored program designed to rehabilitate the economies of European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic (capitalist) institutions could survive in the aftermath of World War II. It was formally called the European Recovery Program.
Berlin Blockade (June 1948 - may 1949)
the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control.
a result of competing occupation policies and rising tensions between Western powers and the Soviet Union.
the Allies figured that the best solution to supply Berlin was through the air. If the Soviets opposed the airlift with force, it would be an act of aggression against an unarmed humanitarian mission.
Truman Doctrine (March 1947)
Russian had paranoia of being surprised attacked mostly from Germany FEAR --> reason for their aggression towards east Geramny
In their side of Germany, the USSR installed a Communist government without any consent, Stalin’s only choice to take power by force (AGGRESSION)
Truman vs. Stalin --> tensions arise
After Potsdam, the French are unhappy because they are not included in Allied decision-making
Stalin especially wanted Yugoslavia and east Germany for their Uranium --> Aggression following Potsdam
At Potsdam, the countries did not conclude the exact territories for Germany → a series of small meetings between representatives → This caused distill within the countries as hard to find conclusion
used to be the main European power capable of balancing German and Soviet threats. This changed after the humiliating defeats in the war → they were not even a power anymore. They lost all influence in decisions about Europe.
Percentage agreement (october 1944)
, secret deal between Stalin and Churchill about: Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria → Stalin benefits, Greece → Churchill Benefits.
Casablanca (January 1943):
was agreed that the war in Europe could only end with an unconditional German surrender.
Teheran (december 1943):
big 3 agreed to postwar separation of Germany, borders of Poland and USSR, recognise Tito’s authority in Yugoslavia and Soviet access to the Batlic sea
USSR benefit: Stalin benefits (deserved since Red Army suffered most in the war).