Why did US policy under Kennedy fail in Vietnam? - Coggle Diagram
Why did US policy under Kennedy fail in Vietnam?
Policy in the lead up to the fall of Diem's regime
The US continued to support Diem’s regime in the South although he became increasingly unpopular
Hawks vs, Doves
US B52 bombers attacked commnist positions in central and Eastern Laos
Kennedy’s testing ground for New Strategies
Military advisers first increased from 800 to 3000 by December 1961, then 10,000 to 1962 and then 16,000 by Kenney’s death in November 1963.
The Strategic Hamlet Program
Kennedy’s admin spent $500 million on aid for South Vietnam. The new strategy was one of counterinsurgency
What effects did Kennedy’s policies have (1961-63)?
Economic aid and military advisers
Aid to the South and Diem was 1.2b dollars
Kennedy followed the policy of containment and domino theory
Military presence increased year on year
Henry Cabot Lodge and the coup of the Generals
ARVN Generals carried out the coup and murdered Diem and the Nhus the following morning
Nhu had framed the ARVN for Buddhist raids to increase dissent among lower ranks and weaken support for the generals’ plans for a coup.
State Department report showed that there was no plan for what a united Vietnam might look like, but it was recognised that one man with some military experience would need to take the lead. Henry Cabot Lodge was chosen as the new Ambassador as a result.
Religious unrest & nationalism in South Vietnam
Nhu’s wife called these suicides ‘Buddhist barbecues’ and offered gasoline to those who wished to do the same
Diem agreed. 21 August after martial law (by Diem’s brother, Head of Secret Police) had been declared midnight raids were made on Buddhist pagodas (temples) across South Vietnam. Pagodas were vandalised, hundreds of Buddhists killed and thousands of monks and nuns arrested
Diem’s troops fired into a crowd of Buddhists celebrating Buddha’s birthday and waving flags, as all banners other than those of the government were banned