attachment , Lorenz
set up a classic experiment where he randomly…
set up a classic experiment where he randomly divided a set of goose eggs, half hatched with there mother in their natural environment, the other half hatched in a incubator where they first saw Lorenz
the incubator group followed Lorenz around and the other group followed their mother, even when mixed up.
This is called imprinting where birds attach and follow the first moving object they see. Lorenz identified the critical period in which imprinting takes place.
Sexual imprinting, Lorenz investigated relationship with imprinting and adult mate preferences. he observed the birds that imprinted on humans also have a preference for humans.
Harlow tested the idea whether contact conform is more important than food. He reared 16 baby monkeys with two wire mothers in one condition milk was dispensed by the wire mother whereas in the second condition milk was dispensed by the cloth covered mother.
the monkeys cuddled the cloth mother in preference to the wire mother and sough comfort from this one. This shows that monkeys prefer comfort than food when it comes o attachment behaviour.
- maternal deprivation, Harlow found those he had been brough up with the wire mothers had serve consequences in adulthood, these deprived monkeys where more aggressive and less sociable and bred less. if they became mothers they neglected there young and even attacked there children
Harlow found a critical period, a mother had to be introduced to their child within 90 days
- Classical conditioning (learning through association)- ucs- unr- ns- nr- cs- cr-
- Mother -ns food - ucs happiness - ucr so the ns is paired with the ucs to form the ucr
Mother is associated is with food, over time the mother becomes a conditioned stimulus for the conditioned response of happiness without the need for food
Operant conditioning - learning through reward and punishment
Positive reinforcement is when behaviour is encouraged by rewards
Negative reinforcement strengthens behaviour by avoiding a unpleasant experience
Punishment deceases the likelihood of behaviour being repeated.
hunger is the primary drive, its a innate biological motivation. as the caregiver provides food the primary drive of hunger becomes generalised and attachment is a secondary drive learned by association
- Bowlby proposed a evolutionary explanation, that attachment is innate system for survival
- Bowbly created the monotropic theory he emphases the attachment on one primary caregiver he believes this one attachment is much more important than others, he theorised that the more time the baby spends with the PAF the better
The law of accumulated separation states the every single separation from the mother adds up.
The law of continuity states that the more constant and predictable a child’s care is the better quality of attachment
- Social releasers: suggest babies are born with cute innate behaviour's, this activates a adults maternal instincts thus forming attachments.
- Bowlby proposed there is a critical period around 6months where the babies can form attachments after this period it is much harder to form attachments
The internal working model is a mental template a child forms from there own parents this usually effects there relationships and there own parenting skills. So children with a happy functioning childhood will likely repeat this through there own children
- the strange situation is a controlled observation is takes place in a lab with a two way mirror
- procedure- 7 episodes lasting approximately 3 minutes each, whereby a mother, child and stranger are introduced, separated and reunited.
- the behaviours that were judged
Proximity and contacting seeking
exploration and secure base behaviour
response to reunion
- the secure attachment, moderate stranger and separation anxiety, upset when caregiver leaves but happy at reunion. When anxious they seek contact comfort. they use the caregiver as a secure base to explore.
Insecure avoidant- low stranger and separation anxiety, little response to reunion, maybe avoidance of caregiver
Insecure resistant- high levels of stranger and separation anxiety, resistant to being comforted at reunion
- Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg, conducted a study to look at proportions of secure, resistant, avoidance. across countries to access cultural variation
1,990 children where studies across 8 countries. the data from 32 studies where meta analysed.
Average findings were consistent with Ainsworth’s original research - Secure 65% - Avoidant 21% - Resistant 14%
in all countries secure attachment was the most common however, Chinese findings revealed the lowest rate of secure attachments (50%)
Japan & Israel revealed a higher incidence of resistant than avoidant children. (collectivsist cultures)
- other studies in cultural variation
an Italian study - simonelli et all studied 76
children aged 12 months using strange situation
they found 50% where secure and 36% where insecure avoidant this might be because of the increase of working mothers
- MD, is the emotional and intellectual consequences of separation between a child and their mother
- Bowblys (1944) studied the link between affectionless psychopathy and maternal deprivation
he studied 44 criminal teenagers accused of stealing. they where interviewed for signs of affectionless psychopathy and if they suffered prolonged separation they where compared to a control group of non criminals
- he found that 14 out of the 44 thieves had signs of a affectionless psychopath and 12 of these had suffered separation. only 5 of the 30 left had suffered separation.
- Separation vs deprivation - separation is where the child is not in the presence of the primary attachment figure whereas deprivation is when they are being deprived of emotional or and physical care
- Bowlby saw the first 2 and half years of a child’s life as the critical period and if absent of care psychological damage is inevitable
- effects on development
- intellectual development
low IQ this is more apparent in children that grew up in institutions
- emotional care
can be less affectionate and have a lack of empathy and guilt. links to criminality as they feel less remorse
Suggests that continual presence of mother and care is essential to a baby’s development
- in 1990s in Romania required woman to have 5 children many parents couldn't afford to keep the children and many where put into huge orphanages in poor conditions, these children turned into research for institutionalism
- research- Rutter et al - followed a group of 165 orphans who where adopted in the uk, they assessed if good care could make up for the emotional and intellectual damage caused. they where assed at 4,6,11,15 and 22. they where compared to a control group who where adopted from the uk
- they found that when the children arrived to the uk make showed signs of delayed intellectual development as well as being malnourished
- the mean IQ of the children adopted before 6 months was 102 and those adopted between 6 months and 2 years was 86 and those after 2 years was 77
children adopted after 6 months showed signs of disinhibited attachment, clinginess, attention seeking.
- The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships
- internal working model suggested by Bowlby is a theory that a child's first attachment with the primary caregiver will be a mental template for all relationships and friendships
if a baby's first relationship is reliable and loving they are more likely to seek out functional relationships.
IWM also effects the child's ability to parent there own children, Bailey et al found that mothers who had been assessed with strange situation as children. they found most women had the same attachment to there mother and there babies.
- Relationships in childhood
Wilson and smith assessed attachment type on 196 children aged 7-11 from London he found that secure children where less likely to be involved in bullying, insecure resistant where likely to be the bullies and insecure avoidant where likely to be victims.
- Relationships in adulthood
McCarthy studied 40 adult women who had also been assessed as children by the strange situation. they found that those assessed as securely attached had the best adult friendships and relationships, those assessed as insecure resistant had problems maintaining friendship and those that where insecure avoidant struggled with intimacy.