Henry VII 1485-1509 - Coggle Diagram
Henry VII 1485-1509
GOVERNMENT: councils, parliament, justice, royal finance, domestic policies.
- H7 was deeply involved at a personal level with the gov. However, it could be argued that H stood aside in gov for morton, Bray + Empson.
- Overall, some successes BUT h failed to understand the peoples needs which therefore led to tension + rebellions.
THE COUNCIL + THE COURT:
- The King ruled with a council of advisers who supported him in making key decisions. He chose the advisers.
- The Council could consist of as many as 40 or 50 people, but attendance at meetings was often much lower.
- They were usually from the nobility and the Church, plus lawyers and royal household officers. They gave the King advice, they were a central administrative body and they acted as a court, dealing with grievances from individuals that required the direct judgement of the King.
THE COUNCIL LEARNED:
- Developed during the second half of H7 reign.
- Aim: to maintain the King's revenue and to exploit his prerogative rights.
- Made the system of bonds + recognisance's work.
- Maintained the King's authority + rising finances.
- Bray and Richard Empson worked there. (Bray died and Empson and Dudley were after.)
- Rewards and status were distributed to those who were deserving or well connected.
- Ended up being executed.
LOCAL + REG GOV:
- Two of Henry’s strongest supporters were rewarded with estates which brought with them a considerable amount of local control. Jaspar, Duke of Bedford, became the most influential nobleman in Wales.
- John de Vere,Earl of Oxford became the most influential nobleman in East Anglia. Henry Percy,Earl of Northumberland was allowed to continue in his former role of Lieutenant of the North.
- His powers were restricted and when he died Henry used the fact that Percy heir was a minor to replace the earl with Thomas Howard,Earl of Surrey,who had neither land nor influence in the Northern counties.
- The same pattern emerged in Wales after the deaths of Jasper Tudor and the Prince of Wales. So by the end of his reign Henry was moving away from the idea of appointing a local magnate to control a particular region. This prevented the growth of magnate power and overmighty subjects in the provinces and in doing so forged far stronger links between central and regional government.
Council of Wales + the Marches:
- Later appointed his 7yr old son Arthur as its head of Prince of Wales.
- Henry didn’t have to worry about a possible threat from the Welsh as he had family links and Welsh connections. Henry rewarded their faith in him by trusting them to see their own affairs.
- Marcher lordships remained in private hands.
- Henry therefore,governed directly and indirectly,a larger proportion of Wales than any King had done before.
Council of Ireland:
- Had the threats of Simnel and Warbeck.
- Sir Edwards Poynings task was to bring the most rebellious areas under the King’s control and to impose a constitution of Ireland that would ensure its future obedience to the English Crown.
- Poyning established a constitution at the parliament which met at Drogheda in 1494.
- Poynings law=decreed that an Irish parliament could be summoned and pass laws only with the King’s prior approval.
- In addition,any law made in England would automatically apply to Ireland. This gave the King greater control over Ireland by destroying the independent legislative power of the Irish Parliament.
- However,Poynings law eventually became too expensive and was dropped.
Council of the North:
- Had a clearly defined function.
- It was closely linked to the main council ,with similar administrative and judicial power to enable the law to be enforced swiftly and efficiently.
- It was subordinate to the King.
- Henry required his council in London to keep a close eye on the activities of his provincial council. Henry made sure that key members of the council were appointed by him.
Sheriff's + JPs:
- The 2 most important royal officials in each county throughout England,(They became the eyes and the ears of the monarch).
- As the power of the JPs increased the sheriffs declined.
- Sheriffs were given a new lease of life in the Tudor period:became the crown's representative in every county throughout England and they also had greater responsibility for the conduct and management of parliamentary elections.
- The Jps were appointed to the commission of the peace for life,the sheriff was elected annually so that the crown could exert greater control over the local officials.
- After 1485 Jps,like sheriffs continued to be selected from the landowning county elite.They met and dispensed justice in local courts known as quarter session (meeting 4 times a year).
- For more serious offences ,the JPs sent criminals to the senior courts or courts of assize,which were staffed by judges appointed by the crown. The highest criminal court was the court of the King's bench,which could override decisions made at the quarter sessions and the courts of assize.
Bonds + Recognisance's:
- H7 restored law and order largely through forcing many of his subjects to take out bonds + recognisance's.
- Some of the bonds and recognisance's were the result of genuine debts owed to the crown.
- HOWEVER, many of them were purely political.
- The King used bonds to enforce order and obedience, and defeat the law, a system which can be regarded as morally dubious.
WEAKNESSES OF LOCAL + REG GOV:
- The king was dependent on the goodwill of his officials.
- Henry had to rely on justices' own self interest as leaders of the society for the upholding of law and order.
- His only control over them was the threat of removal from the commission of peace if they acted improperly,which would be regarded by most JPs as a considerable social disgrace.
- Small + very professional body.
- Was the most detested but most important of the institutions.
- Empson + Dudley were so hated that they were arrested for fraud + executed.
Domestic policy: improving royal finances:
- crown lands.
- profits from feudal dues.
- customs revenue.
- pensions from other powers.
- profits of justice.
- Extraordinary Revenue.
- H7 was by far the country's largest landowner and the rental income from his property was a very important part of the crown's ordinary revenue.
- Income from crown lands had significantly increased during Edward IV's reign.
- At the beginning of H7 reign, income had dropped to about £12,000 per year. This was because the income from lands was collected and administered through the inefficient court of exchequer, which exemplifies Henry's experience in such financial matters.
- 1492: H decided to revert to Edward's system of administration through the chamber (in other words through the royal household rather than through an administrative department), where policies were formulated and decisions were made.
- Finances improved + the income from land had increased by the end of the reign to around £42,000 per year. This was partly achieved by effective treasurers, SUCK AS: Sir Thomas Lovell + Sir John heron.
Profits from Feudal Dues + exercise of the Royal prerogative:
- The pursuit of the King's feudal rights was tightened.
- There were increased profits from wardship + the parliament granted a feudal aid in 1504.
- Obligations payable on the death of a feudal tenant-in-chief became a useful additional source of revenue which landowners found particularly irritating, especially when the statute of uses of 1489 cut out a potential loophole for avoidance of the charge.
Other sources or revenue:
- Customs revenue: Tonnage and Poundage had been granted for life by H's 1st parliament.
- pensions from other powers: EG/ 1492 Treaty of Etaples: French agreed to pay H a pension of £5,000 per annum.
- profits of justice: included fines + income from bonds.
- Extraordinary revenue: H received OVER £400,000 from extraordinary taxation. HOWEVER, the consequence of raising this price was the rebellions due to opposition.
- Much energy was spent on improving H's revenues, but there was a political price to be paid.
- The main victim's of henry's policies were the nations landowners.
COURT + HOUSEHOLD:
- Was influenced by the France + Burgundy courts.
- The power of the king was demonstrated to all the courtiers in attendance.
- Courtiers received money or food.
- The court and household was where the King's support could be obtained.
- The Tudors relied heavily on the royal court.
- Was the centre of the government.
-(How did it differ to the great council?) The great council was a gathering of the house of lords,meeting without the house of commons. It had no clearly defined functions and was an occasional rather than a permanent body.
- Existed to advise the King over matters of state, to administer law and order, and to act in a judicial capacity.
- Henry was rarely present at meetings.
-Had over 240 people but only about 6 or 7 people were in regular attendance at meetings.
- It was important for Henry to include people with a legal background,as they could insist on the King’s rights.
- The council was effective but harsh.
- The council became detested when it was controlled by Empson and Dudley because of their harsh enforcement of penalties and because they fabricated cases in which people owed money to the King,when in fact they did not.
- The three groups that made up the personnel of the government were clerics,nobles and the ‘New men’.
- There were a substantial number of nobles,which seemed to weaken the case of those commentators who claimed that Henry ought to expel them from the government.
- Henry demanded real service from those who sat in the council.
- Nobles who served him well were rewarded. Among these was John de Vere,the Earl of Oxford,who had supported Henry since his days in exile. De Vere was given the offices of great chamberlain and Lord admiral. Jasper Tudor received the Dukedom of Bedford and the control of Wales.
- Henry didn’t want to alienate the former Yorkists permanently, so once they had paid in some way for their treachery,they were given new opportunities to prove their loyalty to the new regime.
- The New Men were chief advisors and servants drawn from the ranks of the lesser landowners or gentry and from the professional classes (especially lawyers).
- The ancestors of these men had generations of experience in local government,justice and landowning. As Henry was exploiting his lands through more efficient methods of estate management,he needed servants who understood auditing and property laws and had administrative skills.
- In this area Henry improved the government because real ability mattered to him and not social class. Eg/Empson,Dudley,Bray,Poignings.
- were the largest social grouping on the council and they accounted for about half of the total membership between 1485 and 1509.
- One of the most favoured among the group was John Morton.Henry appointed John Morton his chancellor or chief minister in 1487 and Richard Fox became the Kings principal secretary.
- Morton was a doctor of civil law and Fox had a degree in theology. This sort of education and legal expertise was ideal for administrators (was beneficial for the government).
- Was responsible for prosecuting anyone who behaved in a rebellious or lawless manner.
- Members of the Royal Council – the King’s most favoured advisers, sat on the court to make these judgements, so it was possible to haul even the greatest nobleman before it.
- It also came to be used as a Court of Appeal. Its exact importance in Henry VII’s reign is unclear owing to a shortage of relevant records.
- Became more developed under Wolsey.
- Main functions:
-To pass laws.
-To grant taxation to the crown.
-Ask for war taxes.
- Initiate legislation on a large scale.
- H7 used it to ratify his claim to the throne in 1486.
-Carried out policies against riots/rebellions.
- HOWEVER, was rarely summoned because he never did expensive campaigns abroad, didn't want to strain the loyalty of his subjects by asking for money AND most of the bills he initiated weren't on a large scale (they were acts of attainder's against political opponents).
- Emphasises the fact that all power derives from the throne.
- Councils Role:
-To advise the King over matters of state.
-To administer law and order.
-To act in a giudicy capacity.
- Small core group included John Morton (lord chancellor), Richard Fox (Lord Privy Seal), Lord Dinham (lord treasurer)
- They gave stability because the king kept them for a long time (eg morton 14, Fox 22)
- John Morton: Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England. He controlled the church and made sure it was loyal to the king
- Councils duties:
- Henry revived Richard III Court of Request (court for poor man’s causes)
-1487 committee to implement of the act of livery and maintenance
-The court of General Surveyors: audited the revenues from the crown land
-Duties: find the nobles who are the most threat and use the acts of attainder against them
FOREIGN POLICY / RELATIONS WITH SCOTLAND + OTHER FOREIGN POWERS: securing the succession, marriage alliances.
- FP aims were pretty straightforward.
- Wasn't concerned with asserting English power in Europe and was more concerned with maintaining good relations + defence.
- He sought to maintain positive relations with with foreign powers to ensure:
-Recognition of the Tudor Dynasty.
-Defence of English trading interests.
- 1487: French Invasion of Brittany.
- 1488: Anglo-French truce.
- 1489: Treaty of Redon between England + Brittany. ALSO, Treaty of Medina Del Campo between England + Spain.
- 1492: England invades France + Treaty of Etaples.
- 1496: Magnus Intercursus + Scotland invades England.
- 1497: truce of Ayton between England + Scotland.
- 1501: Marriage of prince Arthur + Catherine of Aragon.
- 1502: Death of Prince Arthur.
- 1503: Marriage of Princess Margaret + James IV of Scotland.
- 1506: Malus Intercursus + death of Phillip of burgundy (Sept).
Securing the Succession + Marriage Alliances:
- 1486 (prince Arthur Born). 1491 (Henry born).
- H needed to survive long enough for his sons to be old enough to rule and also needed to remove the threat of the Earl of Suffolk. (luckily treaty of Windsor solved this problem).
- H's health deteriorated rapidly and he died 21st April 1509.
- What was evident is that there was a growing split between officials, particularly those associated with the Council Learned such as: Empson, Dudley, Fox, and Lovell who were looking to position themselves effectively once H's health had finally failed.
- There were still fears of Suffolk + his brother Richard De La Pole.
- These were an essential part of international diplomacy and were key for enhancing the power + influence of monarchs.
- ALSO, it was important for H to seek appropriate marriage alliances to gain dynastic security.
- H wanted to maintain alliance with Spain by securing marriage alliance between Catherine of Aragon and Prince Arthur (his eldest son). HOWEVER, these plans failed when Arthur suddenly died
- H quickly sought another marriage between Catherine and his younger son Prince Henry instead.
- H arranged for his eldest daughter (Margaret) to be married to James IV of Scotland which strengthened alliances with Scotland during his reign and weakened Warbeck's threat to the Tudor throne.
- H7 unsuccessfully attempted to reenter the marriage market after the death of his wife, Elizabeth. Possible alliances with Castile, Aragon, France and the HRE were considered but nothing happened.
- Not until H8's reign did H7's younger daughter Mary marry the much older King of France, Louis XII in order to secure peaceful relations between the 2 countries.
-HOWEVER, his FP was not consistently successful. H was wrong-footed by the death of Isabella of Castile in 1504 and was extremely isolated for some time.
- FP and the succession were inevitably linked.
- After the loss of his first son Arthur, H's dynastic security appeared significantly weakened.
- it was extremely important that H secured the dynasty as his rise to power was tenuous and his position was very unstable.
- he was successful at securing his dynasty.
- H also managed to avoid expensive wars.
- ALTHOUGH, on the whole he responded skilfully to the changing circumstances in which he found himself.
SOCIETY: churchmen, nobles, + commoners; regional division; social discontent + Rebellions
- English society was made up of a feudal system.
- The apex of the system under the monarch comprised of great landowners and senior churchmen, the base of the system comprised of those who laboured on their behalf.
- the remnants of the feudal system were still apparent in the law, social relationships and attitudes.
- However, economic pressures especially since the Black Death (1348-1349), had increased social mobility and had created alarm amongst more conservative-minded members of the upper classes who attempted to uphold traditional values by passing sumptuary laws which proved unenforceable.
- immediately below the peerage in status.
- These were often great landowners in their own right.
- The most important members of the gentry such as Sir Reginald Bray, sought knighthoods as confirmation of their social status.
- In 1490 there were about 500 knights.
- Originally his status had imposed military obligations upon its holders. Though that was dyeing out as a specific obligation, it was nevertheless, assumed that those holding the status would assist in the administrations of their localities.
- Peers + Knights together owned 15-20% of the country's land.
- The church was hugely important , not merely for its spiritual role but also as a great landowner.
- The social status of the clergy varied enormously.
- At the lower parish level, curates and chantry priests were modestly rewarded for dealing with the spiritual needs of ordinary folk.
- On the other hand, bishops and the abbots of larger religious houses were important figures who were entitled to sit in the house of lords and who often had political roles to undertake.
- The King of England rather than the Pope governed the church of England.
- Henry 7 tended to use that power to appoint bishops only men who had legal training and whose administrative competence was valued more than their spirituality.
- The most important clergymen included John Morton + Richard Fox.
- The King was reluctant to appoint men whose background was aristocratic.
- The higher clergy were thus becoming less socially exclusive than had once been the case.
- System implied a reciprocal relationship between the magnate and his retainers.
- In return for service, which cold be military service if necessary, a retainer might receive rewards such as local office or grants of land as well as direct payment.
- It was only when the position of the monarch was insecure that the system could be seen as politically destabalising.
- The lowest of the feudal system.
- At the top level of the commoner group were the rich merchants and craftsmen.
- In towns and cities, the relatively small number of educated professionals, of whom the most numerous + influential group were lawyers, exercised considerable influence, often in collaboration with wealthier merchants.
- Lower down the social scale and considered respectable came shopkeepers and skilled tradesmen. These tended to dominate the towns councils and also played a key role in organisations such as guilds and lay confraternities which were a common feature of urban life in pre-reformation England.
- The countryside comprised of Yeomen farmers.
- the decline in population that had occurred as a result of the black death had reduced the demand for land and the resulting drop in land values had enabled the emergence of this group, which Youings termed a 'peasant aristocracy'.
- Below Yeomen came husbandmen can be described by the term 'peasant'.
- Labourers were usually dependent for income on the sale of their labour, though in some cases they could supplement their irregular income through the planting of vegetables or the exercise of grazing rights.
- Their position was very insecure.
- Still dominated landownership.
- The peerage (nobility) consisted of no more than about 50 or 60 men.
- Peerage families died out on a regular basis but were replaced by others who had acquired or bought the Kings favour.
- The crown often relied on such families for the maintenance of order in the countryside.
-Henry 7 was reluctant to create new peerage titles. he was deeply distrustful of the nobility as a class.
- He only trusted Lancastrian military commanders such as the Earl of Oxford and Lord Daubeney had much more political influence under Henry.
- He never trusted the Earl of Northumberland even though he swung the Battle of Bosworth in Henry's favour by betraying Richard III.
-However he relied on Northumberland to control the Northeast of England on behalf of the crown.
- Henry's most important method of controlling the nobility was through bonds + recognisance's.
-HOWEVER, the key to the nobles power was the bastard feudalism system by which wealthy magnates (the leading + royal members of the nobility) recruited knights and gentlemen(retainers) to serve them as administrators or accountants, or sometimes for military purposes.
- Noblemen could use their retained men to bring unlawful influence on others in a court case,or use them against the crown, so Henry sought to limit the military power of the nobility through the use of legislation against retaining.
- However, at the same time he remained conscious of the fact that loyal retainers were essential to maintain the crowns security.
- Towards the end of the 15th century inflationary pressures were becoming more evident.
- 2 rebellions (officially) = YORKSHIRE 1489 + CORNISH 1497. The main trigger for both of these rebellions was TAXATION.
Cornish Rebellion 1497:
- Sparked by demand for extraordinary revenue to finance a far-away military campaign so also was the Cornish Rebellion of 1497.
- The revolt was triggered by the need for revenue to finance the campaign against Scotland.
- Estimated 15,000 rebels involved.
- Attempt to exploit the rebellion was made by WARBECK .
- The rebels made it very close to London, only being halted at Blackheath.
- The rebellion was the most threatening/alarming for the King.
The rebels managed to marchbsuch a large distance without anyone stopping them.
- Therefore, raising q's about the effectiveness of the crowns systems for maintaining order in the countryside.
- In order for H to put down the rebellion he had to withdraw Lord Daubeney and his troops from defending the Scottish border.
- Despite the threat, the rebellion was crushed easily enough by Daubenay.
- The rebel leaders including lord Audely were executed.
- H only punished the leaders and treated the rebels with leniency.
- The rebellion shocked H into ensuring Anglo-Scottish relations were eased and made him particularly cautious about entering into any further foreign conflict.
- Large threat to H7 over the years.
- Claimed to be Richard, Duke of York.
- His ability to attract patronage from foreign rulers transformed him from an irritant to a potentially serious threat.
- ALSO, demonstrated how fragile H's position was perceived to be by other rulers.
- 1491: Warbeck began to impersonate Richard Duke of York in Ireland.
- Was forced to flee from France in 1492 and went to the court of Margaret of Burgundy where he was trained as a Yorkist prince and began to draw English courtiers into his conspiracies.
- Several years after the battle of battle of stoke field (1487), Warbeck's first attempt to land in England in 1495 failed. H had been informed by one of his royal agents (Sir Robert Clifford) who had infiltrated Warbeck's group.
- Warbeck was quickly defeated and fled to the court of James IV of Scotland.
- HOWEVER, the event should not be written off as useless as it could have proved very costly for H as the conspirators had an accomplice in the heart of H's gov (Sir William Stanley).
- Stanley, H's step-uncle + potential traitor was Lord chamberlain and headed the royal household at the time when the royal household gov was still the normal model of political operation.
- highlighting the fact that H was the most vulnerable in the very place where he should have been the most secure (GOV).
- 1496: small Scottish force crossed the border on Warbeck's behalf but quickly retreated.
- ALSO, Warbeck's interests were soon sacrificed when James gave in to henry's offer of marriage to his daughter, Margaret.
- Having FAILED to successfully invade England from Scotland in 1496, Warbeck made a final attempt to seek the English throne by trying to exploit the uncertainties created by the Cornish Rebellion in 1497. BUT: his forces were crushed and Warbeck eventually surrendered to the King.
- H was remarkably lenient at first and allowed Warbeck to stay at court, but confined him to the tower.
- HOWEVER, this time there was no mercy. having allegedly tried to escape the Earl of Warwick , he was accused of treason and they were both tried + executed.
THE EARL OF WARWICK:
- Warbeck's final attempts at conspiracy enabled H to get rid of the Earl of Warwick, who was potentially THE MOST OBVIOUS Yorkist claimant to the throne.
- Warwick was an innocent victim in many respects.
- he was only 20yrs old at the time of the battle of Bosworth and sent most of his life in confinement before his execution in 1499.
Edmund De la pole (Earl of Suffolk) + Richard de La Pole, 'the White Rose'.:
- these were the younger brothers of the Earl of Lincoln.
- Suffolk had fled to Flanders in 1498. he was persuaded to return after a short exile but once again fled in 1501, this time seeking refuge at the court of the emperor Maximilian.
- for as long as Margaret of Burgundy was politically opposed to H7, Suffolk was safe.
- HOWEVER, with the treaty of Windsor 1506 more friendly relations were restored.
- 1 feature in this improvement of relations was that Maximmillian agreed to give up Suffolk, who was duly imprisoned in the Tower of London. H7 took no further action against him.
- ALTHOUGH, H had him executed for treason in 1513.
- This still left Richard De La pole (the white rose) at large during his time in exile, BUT he was killed fighting for the French forces in the battle of Pavia 1525.
OVERALL SUMMARY REBELLIONS + SOCIETY:
- Socially, England remained broadly stable in this period and this is mainly because the people at the bottom of the social scale remained reasonably well off.
- For most of H7's reign, most English people remained peaceful most of the time + the various pretenders and claimants were unable to attract much support.
- The 2 rebellions were easily suppressed.
-Exceptions: pastoral farming dominated in the fens and in the word pastures of the Kent and Sussex weald, and grain farming and fruit growing in Herefordshire and the Welsh border counties.
- Some of these derived from differences in agriculture.
- A line/ regional division. split the country into 2 basic agricultural areas.
- South and East of that line: mixed farming predominated in the more densely populated counties, especially Norfolk, Suffolk + Kent.
- In the more sparsely populated North + West, pastoral farming dominated with the rearing of sheep, cattle + horses.
- Londoners in particular tended to look down upon Northerners for their perceived savagery, while Northerners were envious of Southern riches.
- Regional identity was also reinforced by local government structures.
- Justice was increasingly administered at a county level, and county towns often contained jails and major churches.
-Historians argue that medieval England was a country where ideas of language and nationhood conferred a stronger sense of a single identity than ever before.
- Local identities were also reinforced by Saints' cults which placed importance on centres of pilgrimage, such as Canterbury + Durham.