Chemistry End Of Year Test - Coggle Diagram
Chemistry End Of Year Test
Called the alkali metals. Like all other metals but are very reactive. React vigorously with water. Get more reactive as you go down the group. Lower melting points than most other metals. Melting points decrease down the group. Always produce a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas when reacted with water
Called the halogens. Generally very reactive. Generally the opposite of group 1. Melting point increases down the group while reactivity decreases. Take part in displacement reactions, where an element from higher up the group takes the place off one from lower down the group in a compound.
Normally good conductors of heat and electricity. Shiny when cut.
Malleable. Dense and sonorous. Most have high melting points.
Often have properties opposite of metals. Low boiling points, so are gases at room temperature. Poor conductors of electricity and heat. Dull in appearence. Low density. Brittle and not sonorous.
Called the noble gases. Very unreactive. Low boiling points, so are gases at room temperature. Like the halogens, their boiling points increase down the group.
Reactivity of Metals
Metals and water/steam
Very reactive metals like sodium will react with cold water to produce a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Other metals like magnesium only react with steam, and produce a metal
oxide and hydrogen.
Metals and oxygen
Many metals will react with oxygen from the air to produce a metal oxide. Often, they will need to be heated before they can react.
Metals and acids
If a metal reacts with an acid, it produces a salt and hydrogen gas. All acid compounds have hydrogen in them. When the hydrogen is replaced by a metal, the compound is called a salt.
Metal displacement reactions
A displacement reaction occurs when a more reactive element takes the place of a less reactive element in a compound. In metals, this means that the more reactive metal will become a compound.
Testing for hydrogen gas
The gas produced when reacting a metal and a salt can be collected in an upturned test tube, and a test performed to check that the gas is hydrogen.
Symbol equations have letters in brackets after each substance. These tell you the state of matter of each substance, and are called state symbols.
The reactivity series
Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Zinc, Iron Lead, Copper, Silver, Gold
Ceramics are materials which are hard and durable. They are made by baking a starting material in a very hot oven called a kiln. The temperature of kilns is adjustable for firing different clays and can reach temperatures of over 1300 °C.
Properties: Hard, Strong under compression, Brittle, heat resistance
Ceramics are made from soft substances, which when heated become hard and brittle. Ceramics have many uses which can be linked to their properties. Some uses are clearly visible, such as coffee mugs, but other uses are less visible, such as in car engines.