Antineoplastic drugs : Antineoplastic-Drugs-2 - Coggle Diagram
Antineoplastic drugs :
Altretamine is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug.This medication is classified as an "alkylating agent
Mechanism of action
The precise mechanism by which altretamine exerts its cytotoxic effect is unknown although it is classified as an alkylating anti-neoplastic agent. Through this mechanism, the drug is metabolized into alkylating agents by N-demethylation. These alkylating species consequently damage tumor cells.
capsules is indicated for use as a single agent in the palliative treatment of patients with persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer following first-line therapy with a cisplatin and/or alkylating agent-based combination.
for 14 or 21 days in row
It is usually taken four times a day
Altretamine comes as a capsule to take by mouth
Store it at room temperature (25°C).
unusual tiredness or weakness
loss of appetite
capsules should not be employed in patients with preexisting severe bone marrow depression or severe neurologic toxicity.
Altretaminecapsules is contraindicated in patients who have shown hypersensitivity to it.
report signs of hepatotoxicity including abdominal pain, severe nausea and vomiting, yellow skin or eyes, fever, sore throat, malaise, weakness, facial edema, lethargy, and unusual bleeding or bruising.
Instruct patient or family and caregivers to report severe or unexpected GI reactions
Mechanism of action
Busulfan is an alkylating agent that contains 2 labile methanesulfonate groups attached to opposite ends of a 4-carbon alkyl chain. Once busulfan is hydrolyzed, the methanesulfonate groups are released and carbonium ions are produced.
These carbonium ions alkylate DNA, which results in the interference of DNA replication and RNA transcription, ultimately leading to the disruption of nucleic acid function. Specifically, its mechanism of action through alkylation produces guanine-adenine intrastrand crosslinks.
These crosslinks occur through a SN2 reaction guanine N7 nucleophilically attacks the carbon adjacent to the mesylate leaving group. This kind of damage cannot be repaired by cellular machinery and thus the cell undergoes apoptosis.
For use in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous (myeloid, myelocytic, granulocytic) leukemia (FDA has designated busulfan as an orphan drug for this use). It is also used as a component of pretransplant conditioning regimens in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia and nonmalignant diseases.
Ensure the patient has antiemetics before first dose and is also prescribed them regularly for example, domperidone 20mg tds and ondansetron 8mg tds
significantly decreased activity of the bone marrow
low levels of a type of white blood cell called neutrophils.
low amount of magnesium in the blood.
low amount of potassium in the blood.
Black, tarry stools
blood in the urine or stools
fast or irregular breathing
fever or chills
Busulfan Injection must be stored under refrigerated conditions between 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F).
Injection 0.8 mg per kg
intravenously via a central venous catheter as a two-hour infusion every six hours for four