How Languages are Learned Chapter 1 - Coggle Diagram
How Languages are Learned
First Language Acquisition
The first 3 years: Milestones and development sequences
1) Development sequences
: Aspects of a language that are developed in a particular sequence.
2) Auditory discrimination
: being able to tell difference between similar syllable sounds.
Tiny difference in language sounds that can change meaning within a particular language
3) Function words
: Words that are used mainly as linking or supporting words for nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs.
4) Grammatical morphemes
: Smaller units of language that are added to words to alter their meaning or function.
: A study in which the same learners are studied over a period of time.
Order of acquisition
: Also known as development sequence; which is the order in which certain features of a language are acquired in language learning.
: A study in which participants at different ages/stages of development are studied.
: A statement of a possible fact that can be tested through research.
: Learning to comment on the disappearance of objects, to refuse suggestion, or to reject assertion.
: A unit of language that caretakers address to children.
The Pre-School Years
By the age of 4 children can give commands, ask questions, recite real events, and create stories using correct grammatical markers and word order (most of the time)
By the age of 4 the basic structures of the language(s) spoken are acquired.
Children in these years spend most of the time developing their ability to use language in a social environment.
: The ability to treat language as an object separate from the meaning in conveys.
The School Years
Children begin to learn to read. This gives a major boost to metalinguistic awareness
Children are able to understand that a word is separate from it's meaning and what it represents.
: A way of using language that is typical of or appropriate for a particular setting.
: A way of speaking a using language that is typical of a particular regional, socioeconomic, or ethnic group.
: The variety of a given language that is typically used in formal writing and formal public speaking.
: The ability to use more than one language. Using one word does not count.
The Behaviourist Perspective
: A theory that all learning, whether verbal or non-verbal, takes place through the establishment of habits.
Analyzing children's speech
Patterns in language
- word formation and overgeneralizing them to new contexts.
Focus on meaning
Question formation (forming questions)
Order of events
The Innatist Perspective
: A theoretical perspective based on the hypothesis that human beings are born with mental structures that are diagnosed specifically for the acquisition of language.
: Linguistic knowledge that consists of a set of principles common to all languages.
Critical period hypothesis
: The proposal that there is a limited period during which language acquisition can occur.
Piaget and Vygotsky- Cognitive development
Zone of Proximal Development
: A metaphorical place in which a learner is capable of a higher level of performance because there is support from interaction with the teacher.
: Language that is used to support another speaker.
: A term used by linguist Noam Chomsky that refers to knowledge of language. This includes speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
: A person who has learned a language from an early age and is seen to be fully proficient in that language. Vocabulary and stylistic aspects can differ but the basic grammar is apparent.
Relating to how the human mind receives, processes, stores, and retrieves information. The focus is on internal learning mechanisms that are believed to be used for learning in general, not just language learning alone.
Language Disorders and Delays
deafness, articulatory problems, autism, dyslexia, etc.
The development of children who learn multiple languages during childhood.