STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION, , , - Coggle Diagram
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION
Animal Breeding: Selective cross-fertilisation of animals of desired breed.
OUTBREEDING:Out-crossing or out-breeding is the technique of crossing between different breeds. This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line. It increases genetic diversity, thus reducing the probability of an individual being subject to disease or genetic abnormalities.
CROSS BREEDING: to cause a plant or animal to breed with another plant or animal of a different type in order to produce a new variety
INTERSPECIFIC BREEDING:Interspecific hybrids are bred by mating individuals from two species, normally from within the same genus. The offspring display traits and characteristics of both parents, but are often sterile, preventing gene flow between the species.
INBREEDING:Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology) is the technique in which multiple eggs are fertilized in an animal and the embryo is collected on the 7th day, without any surgery. It is the traditional method of embryo production and is practised in cattle.
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION: It is a controlled breeding method. Semen is collected from superior male. Stored in liquid nitrogen or used immediately.Semen is injected into the vagina of the female during fertile period.
less time for consumption
can be transported to remote areas
breed can be improved
Plant breeding is the genetic improvement of the crop in order to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are disease resistant. It is the process in which two genetically dissimilar varieties are purposely crossed to produce a new hybrid variety. As a result, characteristics from both parents can be obtained in the hybrid plant variety.
THE VARIOUS STEPS TAKEN
(i) Collection of genetic variability- Genetic variability from various wild varieties, species and relatives of crop species are collected to maintain the genetic diversity of a species. Germplasm collection is the entire collection of the diverse alleles of a gene in a crop.
(ii) Evaluation of germplasm and selection of parents- The germplasm collected is then evaluated to identify plants with desirable combination of characters. The selected plants with the desired genes are then used as parents in plant breeding experiments and are multiplied by the process of hybridization.
(iii) Artificial/Cross-Hybridization among Selected Parents- Cross Hybridization combines the desirable characters present in two different parents to produce hybrids. It is a time consuming and tedious job as one has to ensure that the pollen grains collected from the male parent reach the stigma of the female parent. It is not certain that the hybrids would combine desired characters.
(iv) Selection of superior hybrids- It involves selection of those plants that have the desired character combination among the progeny of the hybrids. The selection process through scientific evaluation yields plants that are superior to both the parents. The selected progenies are then self-pollinated for several generations to ensure homozygosity. it has to be successfully bred in 3-4 generations
(v) Testing, release, and commercialization of new cultivars- The selected progenies are evaluated for characters such as yield, resistance to diseases, performance, etc. Testing of hybrid variety is done in farmer's field after evaluation. Release of tested material is done in bulk after selection and certification.
IMPORTANCE OF PLANT BREEDING
Importance of Plant Breeding:
1) Plant breeding has played an important role in enhancing food production.
2) More than 200 varieties of crops have been developed.
3) Disease resistance in plants has been introduced through breeding.
5) High yield and improved quality of crop plants.
4) Plants with increased tolerance to environmental stresses, such as salinity(salt content), extreme temperatures, drought, etc.
BAGGING-COVERING THE STIGMA WITH A PLASTIC BAG AND GO ON WITH THE DESIRED BREEDING.
the hybrid varieties developed in India in sugarcane , wheat , rice , and millets .
These two species were successfully crossed to get sugar cane varieties combining the desirable qualities of high yield, thick stems, high sugar and ability to grow in the sugar cane areas of north India. Millets: Hybrid maize, jowar and bajra have been successfully developed in India.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding
Heterosis may be defined as the superiority of an F1, hybrid over both its parents in terms of yield or some other character.