Structural Economic Change in Birmingham - Coggle Diagram
Structural Economic Change in Birmingham
Characteristics of Birmingham 1950s-1960s
More affluent middle class in suburbs.
Bull Ring shopping centre built.
Poor inner city areas.
Water pollution in rivers.
Poor air quality due to industry.
No controls on emissions.
Very prosperous, unemployment below 1%.
Sustained economic growth.
Lots of substandard housing.
400 new tower block were built.
Continuous population growth.
Immigration from other parts of the UK.
The Economic Changes that Took Place in the Second Half of the 20th Century
Decline of traditional industry e.g. car manufacturing.
Increasing overseas competition.
New exhibition centre and airport.
1999 new deal for community provided broadband in the inner city and set up work training programmes.
New public spaces e.g. Victoria Square.
1992 Birmingham Heartlands development corporation (redeveloped old industrial areas).
The Role of Players who have Influenced Changes in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century
ARAB ISRAELI WAR (1973): raised oil prices affected the car industry in Birmingham, restricted oil supplies in Saudi Arabia.
TNCs: increasing overseas competition due to lower production costs, less demand on Birmingham because other people are able to make products for cheaper.
GOVERNMENT: national - gave grants to foreign TNCs and parts of UK but not Birmingham, local - redevelopment program made rents too high for small businesses.
TRADE UNIONS: frequent strikes put off new visitors.
JAPANESE CAR MANUFACTURERS (1970s): cars were seen as more reliable and better value for money, factories were established in the UK but not in Birmingham.
Impact of Economic Changes on the People and Place in the 2nd Half of the 20th Century
1970-83: earnings fell from being the highest in the UK to almost the lowest of any region. 1982: unemployment is at 19.4%.
81000 new homes built - better quality, motorway network built.
Growing tertiary sector and diversifying industry (e.g. banking, curry etc.)
New green belt established to prevent further outward growth - tree planting and the clean up of canals / rivers.
New venues for sport, music and places of worship e.g. Symphony Hall.
Movement of people out to suburbs and new estates - increased number of commuters.
New immigrants from the Caribbean and the Far East.