In Europe, things were changing. First in ideas: after the terrible wars of religion
(between Catholics and Protestants) that ravaged the continent in the previous century and a half, a new consciousness emerged: did not matter more than a man was good and honest, no matter what religion or opinions
he had? And, second, if there were differences of opinion, would not it be better to discuss them based on the reason and not go to blows or war? These two elements, tolerance (respect the beliefs of others) and reason (argue logically, clearly, with evidence and, if it were necessary, with scientific experiments) step to a third consensus: if all
human beings they are rational, they are equal (The same teaching of Christianity, they are all children of God, but that had not been applied in interreligious wars), and if they are equal, they must be treated equally.A group of French thinkers threw themselves to a gigantic company: summarize all the human knowledge in a collection of books they called the Encyclopedia. Thinkers, like Rousseau, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Diderot, defended these ideas in the Encyclopedia and other books.
These ideas added to the
hunger of the people, they caused the Revolution to
break out in 1789 French, who dethroned and
executed King Louis XVI and to his wife María
Antonieta (1793). This sowed fear in all the royal houses of Europe. The kings, like that of Spain, Carlos IV
(1748-1819), reinforced the despotism and they abandoned any opening based on Enlightenment.