Simple View of Reading - Rose Report (Firstly proposed by Gough and…
Simple View of Reading - Rose Report (Firstly proposed by Gough and Tumner)
Gustafson et al (2013)
Reading ability can be broken down into two components, decoding and language comprehension.
Usually presented in the formula R = D X C.
The components are independent of each other but necessary for successful reading, but neither component is sufficient in itself.
Research has provided strong support for the validity and reliability of the SVR when describing components of reading.
Kirby and Savage concluded that SVR provides a good fit to much scientific data on typical and atypical development, and variation among students across the school age range.
Decoding and comprehension make individual contributions to reading ability, and thus that the combination of those two variables predict reading ability better than each variable does alone.
For individuals with limited reading capacity, decoding is a better predictor, while comprehension is a better predictor of the variance in reading ability among skilled readers,
SVR has been used to explain and categorise different types of reading disabilities, suggesting different interventions for different subgroups if reading disabilities.
Although the SVR is simple in only containing two different components, the two components are quite complex within themselves.
Decoding refers to the ability to quickly derive a representation of the written, visual stimuli that gives access to adequate retrieval of information from the mental lexicon.
Based on this view, decoding is the retrieval of semantic information of word level.
A skilled reader uses orthographical strategy and decodes quickly, correctly and quietly. The orthographical strategy is based on the phonological strategy. There is an important developmental aspect that needs to be considered when examining word decoding skills in children - There is a gradual shift from the reliance of a phonological strategy to an orthographical strategy.
To get an overview of decoding ability, children should be tested based on irregularly spelt words, where orthographic decoding is needed, and of non-words, where a more phonological decoding strategy is needed.
In SVR, Comprehension is viewed as the ability to use lexical information to interpret spoken language. Irrespective of modality, language comprehension concerns all different aspects of language - phonology, semantics, grammar and pragmatics.
Given the simple nature of the SVR - it is not surprising some researchers have suggested more complex theories. Some models divide decoding into phonological coding, phonological awareness, phonological decoding and spelling. Comprehension into - Word Comprehension and receptive grammar.
Reasonable to assume that interventions enlarge the vocab and improve understanding of narrations in early reading development .
One can also argue that decoding abilities constitute a prerequisite for the ability to use language comprehension processes in reading.
McMurray and Thompson (2016)
SVR reduces the processes involved in reading down to two distinct parts: decoding and language comprehension. Both are necessary for skilled reading and neither can be used by themselves.
Both dimensions are continuous, and children vary in degrees of proficiency in both.
Studies on SEN and typically developing readers yield support for this model.
Harrison (2010) stated that this model was oversimplified.
Rose replaced decoding with 'word recognition' as the process of using phonics to recognise words.
Snowling (2009) in response to criticism of the model admitted that decoding and sight word recognition should be classed as two important variables.
A two dimensional model involving decoding and comprehension.
Within this model the only strategy to develop sight word reading and the teaching of decoding has been limited to synthetic phonics.
Stuart, Stainthorpe and Snowling (2009)
Researchers are currently showing how complex becoming literate is.
Children need to acquire two sets of knowledge in order to become readers - Sight word recognition and meaning of language, syntax, semantic and orthographic meanings.
Beginner readers rely on context while fluent readers do not need context to read.
Comprehension and word recognition are important in all levels of reading.
Children may have overdeveloped skills in one area compared to the other.
SVR relies on interdependence. However there is the possibility of differential ability which is highlighted by the cross.
SVR better accommodates research in reading as to the nature and operation of the cognitive and linguistic processes in reading.
Reading takes place in a socio-economic environment, which factors must be weighed into.
In stark skeletal form, SVR explains the processes children must develop in order to become fluent readers
SVR does not imply that beginner readers should be taught the words on the page but should be taught to understand once they know how to decipher the words.
Comprehension develops more slowly than word recognition.
The skills involved in WR and C are different, it is imperative to develop comprehension before and during the teaching of WR.
Skilled and less skilled comprehenders show differences in lexical knowledge, listening, morphology and syntax.
SVR provides clear conceptual framework for teachers to organise their thoughts.
Phonic instruction has been shown to lead to higher achievement at least in word recognition, spelling and vocabulary, at least in the primary grades, and especially for economically disadvantaged and slower students.
Young readers must develop a basic appreciation of the alphabet principle. They must develop a deep and ready knowledge of spellings and spelling-sound correspondences. the capacity to read and comprehend depends on it.
SVR serves as a useful framework for the assessment and teaching of all children.
SVR suggests a combined influence of decoding and linguistic comprehension on skilled reading, both necessary for reading success, neither suficient by itself.
Linguistic/language comprehension is founded on lexical knowledge, semantics and syntactic processes as well as pragmatics.
Though the original term 'decoding' may mislead into believing that it entails only grapheme to phoneme conversion, it does not rule out orthographic or visual recognition.
While teachers of reading are expected to facilitate the acquisition of skills in both dimensions, a focused support would be more necessary to develop decoding and sight word recognition.
IDA identify SVRs dimension of word recognition as the primary level of difficulty and recognises the possibility of accompanying comprehension deficits.