Blood and Plasma Proteins, - Coggle Diagram
Blood and Plasma Proteins
Physiological Effects of Exercise
The concentration of up to 600 proteins changes in the blood after exercise.
Blood is composed of red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells and plasma.
Excretion of waste products
Protecting the body from pathogens
Communicating between different tissues.
Red blood cells play a vital role in
to different tissues in the body.
are fragments of cells that play a vital role in blood
White blood cells defend the body from
Plasma is the non-cellular fraction, containing many solutes important for bodily functions.
Important solutes in blood plasma
Concentrations of solutes in blood can be used to infer
, and in clinical settings, help with diagnosis, and monitoring of certain diseases.
Components of blood proteins in plasma
~60% of plasma can consist of
(up to 40g/l); the remainder are mostly
It has been estimated that plasma contains up to
40,000 different proteins
Other proteins include proteins released directly from tissues and are less abundant, but physiologically important proteins.
Acute Phase Proteins and Whole Blood Cell Counts
Acute Phase Proteins
(APP) change in response to trauma, inflection or as part of
chronic inflammatory disease
Routine clinical haematology tests can diagnose and monitor certain diseases.
Tests can be used to monitor doping in athletes (e.g., RBCs and plasma volume expansion).
Automated blood analysers can provide crucial information <1min
Albumin and Fibrinogen
Albumin regulates water retention within the bloodstream.
Fibrinogen together with platelets form a clot to prevent pathogen entering.
During the acute phase response as part of chronic inflammation:
Albumin levels decrease, due to reduced synthesis and leakage from the blood.
Fibrinogen levels increase, due to increased production by the liver - particularly high in cardiovascular related disease.
Globulins: Alpha, Beta & Gamma
Clinical outcomes can be inferred from the concentration of globulins in the bloodstream.
Transport of fats
Protection of lungs
Breakdown of RBCs
Transport of fats
Transport of iron
Globulins in disease
Autoimmune diseases are associated with progressive tissue destruction, e.g., RA and type-1 diabetes.
Diagnosis can be determined by quantifying levels of globulins in blood (autoantibodies)
Spreading of these autoantibodies can perpetuate inflammatory processes, driving disease progression.
These autoantibodies can eb used to monitor disease activity over time.