News Selection and Production - Coggle Diagram
News Selection and Production
Why do moral panics occur?
Audiences are manipulated for sales- the more people that read a story, the more can access it, leading to a greater opportunity for moral panic.
News Values e.g negativity, extraordinariness, unambiguity
Galtung and Ruge
Hall and Marcuse
Serves the needs of capitalists, where certain groups are labelled as folk devils to help distract and divide populations, but not against the state.
Most moral antics occur in times of economic uncertainty, as with the
Cohen and Young
Assume that audiences share moral concerns so publish stories they think th audience want- including repeating stories.
Link between moral panics and
New media allows for moral panics to spread more quickly through interactivity, consumers become producers.
Citizen journalism could reflect issues the general public are genuinely concerned about.
This could also have the opposite effect with limited interaction encouraging the growth of ‘fake news’
Dominant ideology impressed upon mass populations to
Globalisation and Culture
Fear of locals losing sense of community as the world becomes a ‘global village’
Local issues have global impacts due to new media.
More extreme views. Ohio train incident, right-wing extremists
Churnalism and fake news
News select stories that promote profit (Bureaucracy) at the cost of moral panics.
Norm setting is the way in which the media emphasises and reinforces conformity to social norms and seek to isolate those who do not conform by making them the victims of unfavourable media reports.
Encourage conformist behaviour- the media speaks favourably of those who abide by the law and advertise perferable behaviour.
Discouraging non-conformist behaviour- sensational and extensive coverage of stories such as murder, benefit fraud.
Consequences are then outlined to show ‘lessons’ to those that do not conform.
The theory is too vague- there are too many levels of deviancy where th elites of cannabis and padeophilia cannot be compared.
It is open to interpretation- as one story is sensationalised this may not be agreed upon on consensus.
Dependent on the moral concerns of the journalist and the public
McRobbie and Thornton
Individuals are more worried about problems presented by the media as they are exposed to more views.
The moral panic theory is no longer relevant.
The new media allows for everyone to have a say, so the audience is no longer passive as it was with traditional media. This means that they no longer accept one dominant position.
They are general guidelines which determine how newsworthy an event is.
the more news values an event is compliant with, the more prominent it will be in the news.
These are practical limitations to what may affect what events are presented in the news.
News gathering is expensive.
This has seen a reduction in methods such as investigative reporting and foreign affairs coverage over the last 10 years.
Organisation suffer from the cutting of costs.
BBC- The government froze the TV LIcence Fee in 2010.
Newspapers react to falling readership by making journalists redundant.
Undermined the quality of investigative journalism.
Investigative journalism is reduced to 'digging up dirt and revealing secrets about the private lives of Royals, MPs, footballers and rock stars'.
This could be unfair as there are sill journalists engaged with the exposure of capitalism, and ruling class ideologies such as The Guardian.
argues that entertainment has superseded the provision of information.
argues that infotainment is attractive to media companies as it attracts large audiences, and thus profit.
This however threatens culture and democracy as it often blurs the distinction between fictional and factual.
Time/ Space Available
News has to be tailored to fit either time available in a news bulletin or column space in a newspaper.
Occasionally, stories are deliberately implemented to fill a space, and others excluded due to their magnitude.
This means that news items are reduced within limitations of depth and detail.
This links to the news value of unambiguity, where stories that are easy to understand due to a lack of complexity and length, are more likely to be implemented prominently.
Limits news diversity to certain ideologies, contributing to biased agenda setting (Neo- Marxist)
Newspapers have deadlines as to when stories need to be written and published.
By this point, a new story could have been uncovered, or developments in prior stories of that day, which cannot be published until the next day.
TV news has an advantage over newpsapers here as they can report immediately following an event to inform, such as the case with
argue that news content is dictated by the reaction of the audience though to be consuming the information.
is characterised by short, snappy, bulletins as it is aimed at a young audience.
aimed at young, working class readership uses simplistic language, believing this is what the audience wants, also targeting a certain education level.
Broadsheets are expansive reading materials, so are aimed at more professional individuals, reflecting their education level, with longer, more complex to understand events.
A lunch-time broadcast is more likely to be viewed by a stay-at-home parent, and so an item relating to a 'supermarket price-war' is better received by this audience, opposed to an evening broadcast bulletin.
Marxist view on News Value theories
News values keep news stories unbiased, but the reality is media owners are the gatekeepers of news and how it is presented.
Capitalist values permeate news stories with business sections and uncritical financial reporting.
Herman and Chomsky
advertisers have the power over the news which disseminate the capitalist ideology.
News Values are propaganda for capitalism and a conservative ideology