Gastrointestinal Disease in Exotic Small Mammals , Citation Huynh, M…
Gastrointestinal Disease in Exotic Small Mammals
What is Gastrointestinal (GI)
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases
are commonly diagnosed in exotic pet mammals due to their sensitive digestive tract. Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract( stomach and the intestines). It can be caused by infection with bacteria, viruses parasites, medications, or even new foods.
What are the symptoms?
Causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and other clinical signs
: Noninfectious Disease
Ferrets can have present of abnormalities in the body system. They have a history of chronic diarrhea and cachexia which can be a diagnostic challenge.
Ferrets share the same digestive physiology to dogs and cats, There are certain GI conditions Which are Inflammatory bowel disease IBD) that are very common when it come to these groups of animals.
Diagnostic plan: Ferret Gastroenteritis
Diet, Diarrhea, Vomiting, weight loss, dysphagia, anorexia, lethargy dehydration, weakness, and fever.
Fecal examination, Blood examination Ultrasonography, Cytology, and/ or histopathology of the tissue, Gastric, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intestine and Colon
What tools is use that us noninvasive to examine gastric
What is Gastroscopy?
A gastroscopy is a test to check inside your throat, food pipe (oesophagus) and stomach, known as the upper part of your digestive system
What does gastroscopy check for?
identifies abnormalities of the intestinal mucosa, but it may also reveal distortion of the normal anatomic relationships by displacement or extrinsic compression as the result of a mass or enlargement of an adjacent organ
useful for the diagnosis of lymphoma in many of the cases in which there is diffuse mucosal involvement.
What is Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
Clinical signs include vomiting, lethargy, and green diarrhea. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis has to be distinguished from an eosinophilic condition present in the lamina propria or in the lymph node in case of IBD . When eosinophilic gastritis is present, eosinophilic infiltrates are found in the digestive tract, associated lymph nodes, liver, and lungs.
What is recommend for medical treatment/ management
immunosuppressive therapy using prednisone (2 mg/kg, once a day), cyclosporine (4 mg/kg, twice a day), or azathioprine (0.9 mg/kg, once every 2 days)
: Infectious Disease
what are the infectious disease?
Ferret coronavirus infection is a very important GI disease of ferrets.19 Coronaviruses are positive-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that are currently placed into 3 different classification groups
What is GI Stasis?
GI stasis is the slowing of passage of food through the GI tract. This is due to a change in the population of bacteria normally living in the GI tract that ferment (digest) rabbits' food.
What causes GI stasis?
Image result for what is gi stasis in rabbits
There are many causes of GI stasis including stress, dehydration and anorexia from other underlying medical conditions or gastrointestinal blockage. A common cause is a lack of crude fiber in the diet, specifically, hay. Hay is essential for normal gastrointestinal function
What are the symptoms?
Rabbits with GI stasis often look bloated, pass little to no stool, and have big, gas-filled stomachs and intestines on X-rays. Blood tests often reveal evidence of dehydration and abnormal electrolyte values. There may also be changes associated with other underlying diseases (such as kidney or liver disease).
Diagnostic plan: Rabbit gastrointestinal stasis
Complete history :
Diet, anorexia, weight loss, ptyalism, decreased or lack of fecal output, smaller faeces, clumped faeces, and diarrhea
Abdominal distension, tympanism, abdominal pain, stomach distension, and reduced abdominal sounds
Dental disease, ulcers, and abscess
UltrasoundGastric stasis: gas distension in the stomach, Enzymes and electrolytesRadiograph (consider serial radiographs for monitoring) and Glycemia
cecal impactions, pain medication and intravenous fluids are recommended to stabilize the patient. Treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha (0.2 mg/kg) once every 24 to 36 hours after oral administration of liquid paraffin has been suggested as a treatment alternative for cecal impaction in rabbits
Treatment for GI obstruction
Medical treatment for rabbits diagnosed with GI obstruction relies on fluid therapy and pain management.42 Recognition of hypovolemic shock is important as it requires more aggressive fluid therapy than GI stasis. Bradycardia (<180 bpm), hypothermia (97°F/36.1°C), and hypotension (<90 mm Hg) are commonly observed in rabbits with GI obstruction
Surgical management for GI obstruction in rabbits has been associated with high complication rate
What are they?
astrovirus infection in rabbits is still unknown, but in human medicine, it has been determined that the immunocompromised are most susceptible to the disease
Huynh, M., & Pignon, C. (2013). Gastrointestinal Disease in Exotic Small Mammals. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, 22(2), 118–131.